Linguistic and genetic studies have shown that most Indian groups have ancestry from two genetically divergent populations, Ancestral North Indians (ANI) and Ancestral South Indians (ASI). However, the date of mixture still remains unknown. We analyze genome-wide data from about 60 South Asian groups using a newly developed method that utilizes information related to admixture linkage disequilibrium to estimate mixture dates. Our analyses suggest that major ANI-ASI mixture occurred in the ancestors of both northern and southern Indians 1,200-3,500 years ago, overlapping the time when Indo-European languages first began to be spoken in the subcontinent. These results suggest that this formative period of Indian history was accompanied by mixtures between two highly diverged populations, although our results do not rule other, older ANI-ASI admixture events. A cultural shift subsequently led to widespread endogamy, which decreased the rate of additional population mixtures.
I will put a modest amount of money on the proposition that there were at least two admixture events, and that their LD based methods are picking up the second Indo-European one. If it was just one admixture event, then you have to accept the proposition that South Indian tribals are at least ~30% Indo-European in ancestry. Not impossible, but seems unlikely.
“Indians are obsessed with China, but the Chinese are paying too little attention to India,” said Minxin Pei, an economist who was born in China and who writes a monthly column for The Indian Express, a national daily newspaper. (No Indian economists are known to have a regular column in mainland Chinese publications.)
Most Chinese are unconcerned with how India is growing and changing, because they prefer to compare their country with the United States and Europe, said Mr. Pei, a professor at Claremont McKenna College near Los Angeles. He says he has tried to organize conferences about India in China but has struggled to find enough Chinese India experts.
Liu Yi, a clothing store owner in Beijing, echoed the sentiments of a dozen Chinese people interviewed in Beijing and Shanghai, in dismissing the idea that the two countries could be compared. Yes, he said India was a “world leader” in information technology but it also had many “backward, undeveloped places.”
“China’s economy is special,” Mr. Liu said. “If China’s development has a model, you could say it’s the U.S. or England.”
The sentiments are real. But the Indian assumption that the difference is the governance style of China is false. It’s the aggregate difference in human capital.
But as interesting was the appearance of his sister, Priyanka, who came to parliament to hear her brother speak. A decade ago the chattering classes of Delhi speculated that it was bright Priyanka, rather than Rahul, who would make the dynasty’s more compelling heir. Then she backed away from politics and made clear that her interests were not in public life. Yet her appearance on the 26th, sporting a new, longer hairstyle that makes her seem the spitting-image of her powerful grandmother, Indira, should get the chattering going again. In times of turmoil, perhaps Congress yearns again for a strong woman at the helm. Maybe the Indira look-alike is signalling a message of return with her longer locks. Could Priyanka, in fact, be Congress’s the hair-in-waiting? (Sorry.) India and the GandhisContinue reading →
Pakistan ahead of India in Graduation Rates at all Levels: Riaz Haq has a great piece on how Pakistan’s higher education sector seems to be holding up. I take Sahar’s point that comparing India and Pakistan is counter-productive but since everybody does it; might as well join in (also Indo-Pak seems to be more accurately described as oligarchies).
Zack’s solution to the Eid dates; make Eid a 3-day celebration (day before, day during and day after) that no one can fast on. For the extra day of fasting; anyone who wants to can make up for it after Eid with 2 extra fasts (in case they overate at Eid).
I stole this Dancing Mullah link from Omar but from that I stumbled into this hypnotic Sufi tune (I think its a Bollywood song; Bollywood of course rocks, it actually is a close approximation of real life in its narration). I think the Ummah needs to act forthwith to implement Zack’s Eid Solution; I wonder why Muzzers haven’t yet done some sort of ecumenical council like the Council of Nicea (or perhaps they have) & bring together all their sects together to agree on a few basic rules. Considering I come from a tradition, which considers “Unity” as the bedrock of any endeavor; Muslim factionalism (and factionalism of any kind) frankly befuddles me.
The city of Karachi, an erstwhile Sindhi and British city, converted into a North Indian migrant enclave in 1947, and now increasingly disputed between different competing gangs, is seeing a frenzy of media coverage (at least in Pakistan). Two possibly related issues have exploded on to the scene:
1. Reports that Scotland yard and the Pakistani intelligence services may have cracked the mystery surrounding the murder of Imran Farooq. Imran was a core member of the MQM (the party that dominates Mohajir (migrant) politics in Karachi) who had apparently left the party when he was killed in London. It seems this assassination was arranged by the MQM (possibly with links going all the way up to its exiled chief (andclownish public speaker), also living in London). In Pakistan, such matters are arranged and sorted out between intelligence agencies and various warlords, but it seems that in England they still do things differently. The Brits (surely in spite of pressure from national security type asswipes who think MQM is a useful force against Islamists) maybe are not yet corrupt enough to let the whole thing drop. That may have put the MQM on the back foot.
Incidentally, for comic relief you can go to this article. By now I expect upper class liberals to manage amazing feats of connecting the dots, but this takes the cake….
Incidentally, Zulfiqar Mirza is descended from one of two Georgian soldiers who were captured by Persian forces (in the early 19th century? I am not sure which Georgia-Persia war, but sometimes around 1800 or so) and presented as a gift to the ruler of Sindh and whose descendants became prominent Sindhi intellectuals and public figures…
I finally understand what the whole Anna Hazare demands are about. Its a great article (Indian Hazare Corruption) in the New Statesman and while its tilted against Mahatma Hazare; I still think its a very good read (it also brings to mind how spectacularly wrong Nehru, Patel & perhaps even Mahatma Gandhi were wrong in insisiting on a centralised India – their legacy is systematically being undone).
I also discovered a brilliant article about Arundhati Roy, who is probably one of the most outstanding public figures emerging from India today. Arundhati Roy, every day one is insulted in India and does Ms. Roy suffer from the “Freida Pinto” syndrome, when an Indian (female) finds international success and “bypasses” the local establishment is she then vilified for not following the “national line”. Ms. Pinto and Ms. Roy seem to be the Indians that the world (read West) actually want to read, see and hear rather than the Bollywoodified Shining secular India saga that’s droned on by the Times of India.
Sharma’s bluster is typical of Roy’s intellectual critics. Some put it down to professional jealousy – she is one of the few anti-establishment figures from India heard and read intently by a large international audience. This means, crucially, that she is paid well for work that would normally be found languishing in undersubscribed journals in her home country. Sharma would dismiss the notion that he craves her celebrity and success, but you can’t help but wonder – as he scorns her choice to live in an upmarket neighbourhood of Delhi – if he might not like to live there, too.
“The whole skill,” she tells me earnestly, “is deploying your voice from the heart of the crowd and yet insisting on independence, not as some individualist who wants to be a star but as an individualist who has a particular way of living, or thinking, or loving.” As a statement, it seems to capture a conflict at her core: she is the insider on the outside, part of a movement and yet, as a writer, inevitably alone – the individual at the heart of a crowd.
Edhi is an absolute miracle. His network extends through the length and breadth of the country and the sheer volume of good works done by the Edhi foundation is so huge it would be unbelievable if it wasnt there for all to see. Like Gandhi, he is living proof that there is such a thing as the genuine article, and when one comes along, people do respond….
Now Pakistan officially wants NATO and the ANA to launch operations against “safe havens”. The same Pakistanis also want NATO to leave and ANA to make a peace deal with the Taliban. These two aims are mildly contradictory.
Its not a joke. There ARE no good options any more and the army’s ability to handle a mess they helped to create is rather limited. I dont think the “terrorists” will overrun the place, but I dont think they are going away either. All dreams of the milk of human kindness flowing in rivers of brotherhood after the yankees leave are going to be dashed…and there is no plan B.
The following exchange is from our email group, but it seemed worth sharing:
Actually some middle class Pakistanis are already questioning the deep state version of this “theory” and its associated “strategic imperatives” and MANY find the Zaid Hamid level BS a total joke.
I know it seems hard. But things change. Most Pakistanis still cannot tell you what is this “two nation theory” and what are our “strategic needs”. We may be biased by our middle class background since we learned these terms at school (like other nation’s middle class kids learn their own national myths in school…of course, some myths are more inclusive, some are more vicious and dangerous) so we think there must be some serious theory somewhere and it is the “foundation of Pakistan” and there must be a “strategy” and without it everything falls apart…all of which is not true.