btw, on General Zia, I was told by a retired officer with first hand knowledge that General Nawazish wanted him fired or even court-martial-ed for exceeding his brief in Jordan. And that General Zia’s skin was ultimately saved by General Hamid, who was the army chief at that time. Zia went (as described below) to General Gul Hassan, who was CGS and who then went to General Hamid. Hamid decided to give another chance to Zia because Zia had been his brigade major when he was a brigadier and senior officers feel somewhat protective towards juniors who had served with them. .
In fact, General Hamid saved Zia’s career twice. When Zia was a major, he was reported to the GOC (general officer commanding) of his division by a JCO for preaching wahabi-ism to men in the mosque (it was most unusual for an officer to be even going to the mosque in those days, so this was a big no-no). The GOC, General Haq Nawaz, was a bearded Muslim but also an old-school officer, and he ordered that Zia be immediately knocked down to captain..a demotion that would have effectively ended his career. But Zia went begging to Brigadier Hamid and Hamid went to Haq Nawaz on his behalf and Haq Nawaz rescinded his order and just transferred him out without adverse comment.
So General Hamid can be held responsible for twice saving the career of the man who most decisively moved Pakistan on to a jihadist course; a course that was always hidden in the two-nation theory, but only as one possible outcome.
King’s Counsel by Jack O’Connell with Vernon Loeb (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2011), p. 266
King’s Counsel by Jack O’Connell is a fascinating account of important events of Middle East by someone who was involved in different capacities. This book was published in 2011 after Jack’s death. A brief biography of author is important to understand his role. Jack earned well rounded qualifications in different fields before joining Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). He earned a bachelor’s degree in Foreign Service and a law degree from Georgetown University. He had an interesting connection with Pakistan. He earned a Master of Islamic Law degree from Punjab University in Lahore in early 1950s. His mentor asked him to write his masters thesis on whether it was possible for an Islamic country to be a democratic state. Jack concluded that there was nothing in Islam that would prevent an Islamic country to be a democratic state. His idea was convincing enough that head of the department arranged for Jack to present a paper to the Constitutional Committee then working on writing the constitution of the newly independent Pakistan. Jack was also selected for the 1952 Pakistan Olympic basketball team. However, due to lack of funds Pakistani team never made it to Helsinki. After joining CIA, he worked at Pakistan desk and the Near East Operations Division.
Jack joined the Middle East Division of CIA in 1950s and worked at the headquarters. He first met King Hussain of Jordan in 1958 when Jack was thirty two and King Hussain twenty two. Jack’s mission was to appraise King about a possible coup attempt. This relationship developed into a life long friendship until King Hussain’s death. Jack served as deputy chief of Beirut station from 1960 to 1963 and station chief of Amman from 1963 to 1970. He had the front row seat to two most important events of that time period; 1967 Arab-Israeli war and 1970 Jordanian military action against Palestinian guerrillas. Jack left CIA in 1972 and joined a law firm in Washington. He was Jordan’s attorney right until his death in 2010 and in this capacity was engaged with both Jordanian and American officials in back room diplomatic channels.