Indians are known the world over for their lack of unity (this is only to be expected, a billion people marching in lock-step is possible only in Communist China, and even there we have our doubts). No one except the stoutest patriot believes in that hoary school-yard slogan “unity in diversity.”
That said Indians are united about the need for diversity (and benefit of local control). This is simply a matter of accepting reality. In a country when there are so many languages, religions, cultures there is not much you can do to privilege any one “thing” over another (you can try and fail).
In general, where there has been sustained complaints of “imposition” (one community over another), we have followed the example set by our (ex) British masters and granted partition. On November 1, 1966, there was a splitting of the pre-existing Punjabi Suba into majority Punjabi speaking (and Sikh by religion) Punjab, and Hindi speaking (Hindu) Haryana, and also Hindi/Pahari speaking (Hindu) Himachal Pradesh (25 January, 1971). The same policy was followed for Kerala (1956), Maharashtra (1960) and Nagaland (1963) and others.
In November 2000, Jharkhand was split from Bihar (and Chattisgarh from Madhya Pradesh) with an emphasis on (exclusive) tribal identities. We just experienced (2nd June, 2014) a bitter, yet mostly peaceful partition between Telugu speaking people in Telangana and Andhra. And in the future there may be a Gorkhaland for Nepalis who propose to be free of Bengali domination.
Even at the intra-state level, a new, muslim majority Malappuram district was created on 16 June 1969 (by the secular, communist government of EMS Namboodiripad) by segregating taluks of the erstwhile Kozhikode and Palakkad
Thus when President Obama said: (Tame) Kem Cho (?) Mr Prime Minister we were quietly happy. There is no country on which has such diversity to the point that the Constitution notes 22 scheduled languages. Even that list ignores tens of millions of non-Hindi speaking people in the “Hindi” belt – Maithili from North Bihar is the sole exception – and the Tulu speaking community in (Mangalore) the south.
Since the time of independence elites have been fighting between themselves about the language to be imposed on the downtrodden (elites will always send their progeny to English speaking convent schools). But the eight schedule is serious business and if we really claim to love out country we should be able to speak at least one language that is not English and not our mother tongue.
For the Hindu-Hindi imperialists, we recommend learning any one of the four main southern languages; Telugu with a very large Sanskrit content will probably be the best bet. For the people of the south (who want to make a point by rejecting Hindi) we recommend Bengali (or Gujarati). However if you truly want to confound the Hindi speakers try Bhojpuri (or Maithili, the sweetest of them all).
[ref. Wiki] The Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution contains a list of 22
scheduled languages. At the time the constitution was enacted, inclusion in
this list meant that the language was entitled to representation on the Official
list has since, however, acquired further significance. The Government of India
is now under an obligation to take measures for the development of these
languages, such that “they grow rapidly in richness and become effective
means of communicating modern knowledge.”
Via the 92nd Constitutional amendment 2003, 4 new languages – Bodo, Maithili,
Dogri, and Santali – were added to the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution.
Even though English language is not included in Eighth Schedule (as it is a
foreign language), it is one of the official languages of Union of India.
How are you (?) in all 22 (less one) languages
1) Axomiya – Aapuni
2) Bangla – Aapni
(informal: Tumi kemon acho? most informal: Tui kemon achish?)
3) Bodo – Nungni khabora ma?
4) Dogri – Kiyaan oo ji?
5) Gujarati – Tame kem cho?
6) Hindi – Aap kaise hain?
7) Kannada – Neevu hengiddira?
8) Kashmiri – Tohy chivaa vaarai?
9) Konkani – Tum kosso
10) Maithili – Aahan
11) Malayalam – Thaankalkk
(informal: Engnganuntu ninakku?)
12) Manipuri – Nung
ngai biribra adombo?
13) Marathi – Aapan
14) Nepali – Tapaiilai
15) Odia – Aapana kipari
16) Punjabi –
Tuhada ki hal he?
17) Sanskrit –
18) Santali – Not known
19) Sindhi – Tawaan
20) Tamizh – Eppadi
21) Telugu – Meeru aelaa
22) Urdu – Aap kaise hain?