The Emergence of Chariot driven Warrior Aristocracy of the Bronze Age

𝗧𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗶𝘀 𝗮𝗻 𝗲𝘅𝗰𝗲𝗹𝗹𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝗱𝗼𝗰𝘂𝗺𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗮𝗿𝘆 𝗼𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝗮𝗻𝗮𝘂𝗹𝗶/𝗦𝗶𝗻𝗮𝘂𝗹𝗶 𝗰𝗵𝗮𝗿𝗶𝗼𝘁 𝗯𝘂𝗿𝗶𝗮𝗹𝘀, 𝘀𝘁𝗿𝗲𝗮𝗺𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗼𝗻 𝗗𝗶𝘀𝗰𝗼𝘃𝗲𝗿𝘆+, 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗻𝗮𝗿𝗿𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗼𝗳 𝗠𝗮𝗻𝗼𝗷 𝗕𝗮𝗷𝗽𝗮𝘆𝗲𝗲 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗲𝘅𝗽𝗲𝗿𝘁 𝗽𝗮𝗻𝗲𝗹 𝗰𝗼𝗺𝗽𝗿𝗶𝘀𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗼𝗳 𝗽𝗿𝗼𝗺𝗶𝗻𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝗮𝗿𝗰𝗵𝗮𝗲𝗼𝗹𝗼𝗴𝗶𝘀𝘁𝘀 𝗮𝘀 𝗣𝗮𝗱𝗺𝗮 𝗩𝗶𝗯𝗵𝘂𝘀𝗵𝗮𝗻 𝗕 𝗕 𝗟𝗮𝗹, 𝗥 𝗦 𝗕𝗶𝘀𝗵𝘁, 𝗞 𝗡 𝗗𝗶𝗸𝘀𝗵𝗶𝘁, 𝗕 𝗥 𝗠𝗮𝗻𝗶, 𝗩 𝗡 𝗣𝗿𝗮𝗯𝗵𝗮𝗸𝗮𝗿 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗦 𝗞 𝗠𝗮𝗻𝗷𝘂𝗹 𝗯𝗲𝘀𝗶𝗱𝗲𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗴𝗲𝗻𝗲𝘁𝗶𝗰𝗶𝘀𝘁 𝗡𝗶𝗿𝗮𝗷 𝗥𝗮𝗶. 𝗜𝗳 𝘆𝗼𝘂 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲𝗻’𝘁 𝘀𝗲𝗲𝗻 𝗶𝘁 𝘆𝗲𝘁, 𝘆𝗼𝘂 𝘀𝗵𝗼𝘂𝗹𝗱 𝗺𝗮𝗸𝗲 𝗶𝘁 𝗮 𝗽𝗼𝗶𝗻𝘁 𝘁𝗼 𝗱𝗼 𝘀𝗼. 𝗜𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝗾𝘂𝗶𝘁𝗲 𝘄𝗲𝗹𝗹 𝗺𝗮𝗱𝗲 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗴𝗶𝘃𝗲𝘀 𝗼𝘂𝘁 𝗮 𝗹𝗼𝘁 𝗼𝗳 𝗶𝗻𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗺𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗼𝗻 𝗦𝗮𝗻𝗮𝘂𝗹𝗶 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿𝘄𝗶𝘀𝗲 𝗻𝗼𝘁 𝗮𝘃𝗮𝗶𝗹𝗮𝗯𝗹𝗲 𝗮𝗻𝘆𝘄𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲. 𝗜 𝗺𝗮𝗻𝗮𝗴𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗼 𝗴𝗲𝘁 𝘀𝗼𝗺𝗲 𝘀𝗰𝗿𝗲𝗲𝗻𝘀𝗵𝗼𝘁𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗱𝗼𝗰𝘂𝗺𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗮𝗿𝘆, 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗿𝗲𝗰𝗼𝗻𝘀𝘁𝗿𝘂𝗰𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝗰𝗵𝗮𝗿𝗶𝗼𝘁, 𝘀𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘀𝗵𝗶𝗲𝗹𝗱 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗜 𝗮𝗺 𝗴𝗼𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗼 𝘀𝗵𝗮𝗿𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗺 𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲.

Continue reading “The Emergence of Chariot driven Warrior Aristocracy of the Bronze Age”

when one fails, one might listen to the critics

When one fails, one might listen to what critics say.

The worst aspect of Modi/shah politics is that their politicking is meant to incite and polarise , to the detriment of forgetting other serious issues . Caa politics were allowed till it led to riots and later  continued right into the pandemic. The farmers protest was allowed to block roads, the tractor protests were allowed on jan 26,Lot of  mindspace was captured by these events , followed by bengal elections. All of this politicking meant that most people did not focus on covid. While I did consider the possibility of covid returning in summer again, having read about the correlation of covid and humidity
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/08/200818094028.htm
, I had clearly forgotten about it with all the politicking around.

We all missed the ball due to the political atmosphere that was cooked up , however, we are not paid for the job so are not equally responsible, I suspect many would have done better if paid to do so, the rising numbers should have alerted the experts. Modi ran a quasi presidential system without checks. Had he succeeded , he would deserve the credit, but now that he has failed and we stand naked in front of the world, we might listen to the critics who warned us.


There are many things the best of scientists still do not know about this virus. But some we know. The virus doesn’t vote. Nor does it care about who wins or loses. It can’t be polarised. It spreads sickness, misery and death, irrespective of politics or faith. It feeds on political hubris.”

As Modi govt faces up to Covid disaster, BJP learns a tough truth — the virus doesn’t vote


There is as clear a declaration and celebration of victory against the virus as you could imagine. When the pandemic began, the world was so concerned about India, that a tsunami of infections was going to hit us, Modi said. There were people predicting 700-800 million Indians getting infected and more than two million dying. But India didn’t let this happen and saved humanity from a big disaster, he said.

He talked about how India had built capacities in no time, the world’s biggest vaccination programme has been launched on the back of two ‘Made in India’ vaccines with many more to come, and how India is now out to save the world by exporting these.”


Next exhibit, see here, the resolution passed by the BJP National Executive in February. It was a stirring declaration of victory against the virus. “It can be said with pride,” it read, that “India not only defeated Covid under the able, sensible, committed and visionary leadership of Prime Minister Modi, but also infused in all its citizens the confidence to build an Atma Nirbhar Bharat”. The resolution was so effusive, it’s a surprise it stopped short of asking that a victory arch be built. We quote again: “The party unequivocally hails its leadership for introducing India to the world as a proud and victorious nation in the fight against Covid.”

It said “the world has applauded” India’s achievement, and then also praises the “appeal for activities like clapping and clanging of thalis, lighting of diyas, showering of flowers over hospitals”. India, it said, stands tall, especially with its “vaccine victory” and moving in the “direction of complete triumph over Covid”.”

Ram Guha, the historian shared this.

https://www.telegraphindia.com/opinion/politics-and-play-self-before-nation-the-arrogance-of-power-and-the-humility-of-patriotism/cid/1813467

” “In the wake of the coronavirus pandemic,” I wrote, “the country faces probably its greatest challenge since Partition… This pandemic and its fallout have already led to enormous human suffering, and this will multiply. In this scenario, to restore social trust and to rebuild the economy may be beyond the abilities of one man and his small circle of trusted advisers.””

 

On 24th February this year, Modi joined stalin, hitler, gaddafi, mussolini, saddam hussain in having a stadium be named after him.

While President Biden on Feb 27 informed in a speech , ” In five weeks, America has administered the most shots of any country in the world, with among the highest percentage of population fully vaccinated. That’s progress we promised. It’s also true while covid 19 vaccinations are up, covid cases and hospitalisations are coming down. But I need to be honest with you,cases and hospitalisations could go back up,with new variants as they emerge.So, I want to make something very clear: THIS IS NOT THE TIME TO RELAX. we must keep washing our hands, stay socially distanced,and for God’s sake, wear a mask.”

This degree of screw up would not be possible without failure of bureaucracy. But that only reflects his choice of bureaucrats .

Further information revealed tells us that the covid task force did not meet in february and march inspite of surge.

““It became abundantly clear in mid February that India was heading towards a devastating second wave,” one member of the national taskforce said. All three scientists spoke on the condition of anonymity. “When things in Maharashtra started going out of hand, some of us tried to flag this issue,” the first member added. The taskforce, however, did not meet during this crucial time. A second member of the taskforce told me that a meeting of the body was “not convened” unless the government “wanted us to rubber stamp some decision already taken by politicians.””

https://caravanmagazine.in/health/india-covid-19-taskforce-did-not-meet-february-march-despite-surge-say-members

“Another significant lapse, the members told me, the Indian Council of Medical Research’s failure to update the treatment protocol for COVID-19 in the past nine months, since July 2020.”

” The ICMR’s failure to update the treatment guidelines in line with global standards have also resulted in a thriving black market for remdesivir that continues to prey on vulnerable families.”

When one runs the govt on a quasi presidential style manner, without checks and balances, without meeting scientists directly and consults very narrowly, it becomes a system ripe for missing out on crucial information. The failures of various chief ministers of various states also needs to be called into question, however, the final solution to this pandemic was always going to be vaccinations at the earliest. And India has emerged as the biggest affordable pharma in the world. And the data for efficacy of astrazenca was already available by december end.https://www.businesstoday.in/current/corporate/oxford-university-astrazeneca-coronavirus-vaccine-70-effective-lancet-journal/story/424291.html

And government did not give vaccine manufacturers the necessary credit to increase their capacity or secure doses while other countries like US did at the earliest.

One wonders by which date were they hoping to cover the vaccination of the population by?. It seems, they never considered the possibility of second wave. Or they would have chosen to vaccinate atleast the vulnerable population at the earliest.

Indian economy was on downturn before 2020 covid hit India.  After 7 years, it is time to start asking questions on competence of government on all other issues and in particular on economic growth and the timeline by which it expects it to deliver.
One must admit that for the degree of power he held without checks , this failure is almost entirely due to his personality as ram guha informs us.

https://www.ndtv.com/opinion/3-traits-of-modi-that-have-cost-india-dearly-by-ramachandra-guha-2242669

“My own analysis is very different. Narendra Modi has been a disappointment as a Prime Minister not because he has bad advisers or because some good advisers died relatively young, but because of his own faults and failings”

“The first trait is the suspicion of experts and expertise. As a self-made man, who has risen to the top on the basis of his own intelligence, his own drive, and his own will-power, Modi is suspicious of those with formal qualifications from elite institutions. His statement that he preferred “hard work to Harvard” was a striking manifestation of this belief”

The second trait, which is related to the first, is the cult of personality that the Prime Minister has built around himself. As a technocrat who has worked with the PM once told me, the rule that all advisers have to observe is “total obsequiousness, no credit”. The line with which the Prime Minister fought and won the 2019 elections, ‘Modi Hai toh Mumkin Hai’, says it all. Only Modi will defeat terrorism, Modi and Modi alone will humiliate Pakistan (and now China), Modi by himself will eliminate corruption, Modi will surely make India the Vishwa Guru – this is the sort of thinking that is ubiquitous within the ruling party and the central government. But a large and complex country like India cannot be governed effectively and well through the force of one person’s will – however farsighted and hardworking that individual might be.

For all the confidence and strength he exudes, the behaviour of the Prime Minister suggests that he is, within himself, a somewhat insecure man. This is evident not just in his reluctance to publicly praise his ministers or advisers when they do a good job, but also in the sort of people he relies on for advice. The preponderance of Gujarat cadre officers around him and in positions of influence in the central government is one sign. A second is his tendency to shun some outstanding IAS officers, merely because they once held important positions in Congress governments. Even within the top ranks of the IAS, loyalty to the Leader, and not the quality of one’s intellect, is what the Modi Government prizes most.”

“If the Acche Din promised by Narendra Modi in May 2014 still remain elusive a full six years after he became Prime Minister, then the buck must stop with Narendra Modi himself. Not the death of a trusted colleague, not the incompetence of a few officers in his inner circle, but his own megalomania, his own suspicion of experts, his own reluctance to share credit, and his own inability to transcend the sectarian ideology that he embraced as a young man – it is these traits of Narendra Modi himself that explain why history will judge him far more harshly than his naïve and trusting supporters believe or hope.”

http://https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AFVmsRmFE4Q

 

And the govt declaring vaccines to be open for all above age 18 also seems another jumla.  we clearly do not have enough vaccines for everyone.

https://www.timesnownews.com/videos/et-now/news/does-india-have-enough-vaccines-for-all/95579

According to the agency, serum institute can produce 70 million vaccines this month, 100 million vaccines next month, covaxin can produce 10 million vaccine this month and maybe 20 million vaccine next month.  While in total of about only 100 million people have received first dose. The population of those about age 60 and above is about 100 million( approximately). While according to the news agency, the population between 18 to 45 is about 600 million, requiring 1.2 billion doses.

Perhaps, the voluntary arm of rss would be better to have own in house experts, shadow cabinet to check on PM from here forth. In anycase, the absolute trust Mr Modi had held so far is now broken. People have seen him fail as clearly as ever.

Many people had seen their friends, family, neighbors  hospitalized, have lost their loved ones and suffered the dread that it could be them next. They clearly will not forget this failure. For many of us, this is the biggest failure of government we have seen in our lives.

While the situation continues to evolve, let us keep hope , work together and succeed in overcoming this difficult phase.

Zulfi Bhutto of Pakistan; the dark side chronicles

An old post written by Dr Asif Javed (who has also included this in his book, an interesting collection of articles published as “The Doctor from the East”

Bhutto Legend: Myth and Reality
By Dr Asif Javed
Williamsport, PA

“I feel that your services to Pakistan are indispensable. When the history of our country is written by objective historians, your name will be placed even before that of Mr. Jinnah.” The writer of this infamous piece of consummate flattery was a young Z.A. Bhutto, and the recipient, Sikander Mirza, who should be in the political hall of shame, if one were ever to be erected in Pakistan.

Balawal Zardari has recently made a lot of noise about Z.A. Bhutto’s trial and demanded apology for the unjust verdict handed out to his grandfather. It has become very fashionable lately to call it a “judicial murder”. This writer is not a lawyer nor am I a politician; I do, however, belong to the unfortunate generation that witnessed the events of his grandfather’s time in power, and fall from it. It is said that legends ossify over time; in Bhutto’s case, certainly that appears to be so. Bhutto worship has become a relentless train that shows no signs of slowing down; instead, it keeps gathering speed. In the process, the established historical facts are being denied or distorted, and myths are being created. KK Aziz may easily write another volume of Murder of history based upon what we have seen recently.
Z.A. Bhutto was widely admired for his genius. Henry Kissinger may not have been way off the mark when he remarked, “Elegant, eloquent, subtle. . . .I found him brilliant, charming, of global stature in his perceptions. . . .He did not suffer fools gladly.”It is however, the other side of ZAB—the dark one—that needs to be revisited. In the process, perhaps we, as a nation, may learn some lessons and see things in the right perspective. Khalid Hasan, a life long admirer, who knew ZAB first hand, and worked as his press secretary, may have written the most balanced and insightful short biography of ZAB. He has summed it up eloquently: “ZAB had all the makings of a classical hero, carrying the seeds of self destruction in him—he was a flawed genius, a god who turned out to have feet of clay. . . .ZAB had many personal failings, including an inability to trust others, a congenital suspicion of friends and high sensitivity to personal criticism.”

With rare insight and objectivity, KH writes: “There is no evidence that US government or any of his agencies played a role in the overthrow of Bhutto—the time has come for us to accept that much of what has happened to our country and our leaders has been the result of our own mistakes. . . .ZAB believed that a country should have only one central figure as leader and all power should flow from him. It is a tragedy that a man of Bhutto’s intelligence, education and sense of history did not appreciate that Pakistan could only survive as a federal state with the provinces enjoying the maximum autonomy. Bhutto could not abide rival claimants to power even if they were elected to their office. He could not work with the opposition run provincial governments in Quetta and Peshawar and squeezed them out; that was his undoing. Bhutto forgot that power in order to be kept, must be dispersed.” KH also notes that it was Bhutto who revised ISI’s charter to include domestic political intelligence.

It is widely believed that Bhutto was hanged for a crime that he did not commit. It is rarely, if ever, asked, who then was the real perpetrator? Continue reading “Zulfi Bhutto of Pakistan; the dark side chronicles”

Browncast: Frank: a well informed Indian talks about India

Another BP Podcast is up. You can listen on LibsynAppleSpotify, and Stitcher (and a variety of other platforms). Probably the easiest way to keep up the podcast since we don’t have a regular schedule is to subscribe to one of the links above!

Image

This episode is somewhat unique in that the guest is anonymous. “Frank” tweets on twitter as @Frankisalegend1 and has a background in business and finance. He is well informed and well read and we had an interesting chat about Indian politics, recent history and his fascination with Steve McQueen.

 

 

Koneswaran, Tenavaram Temples and God Upulvan

This posted started off as a reply to Siddarth’s comment and his visit to two temples in Sri Lanka.

First, three old Sinhala words out of many. Gokkana, DeviNuwara, Upulvan

Gokkana. The old Sinhala name for Trincomalee. Trincomallee is Derived from the recent name, Tri-Kona-Malaya. Malaya (=Malai in Tamil) is an old word used for hill/mountain. eg the Hill country is Malaya Desaya and first ref to that term that I know around 1BC. I suspect that word is from Pali. The common sinhalese word is Kanda for mountain. eg Kanda-Uda-Rata-Nuwara Hill-Top-Country-City. Now in English Kandy and in Sinhala Nuwara. Is Kanda Tamil or really old Sinhala? Who knows,

Dondara: Devapura and Devanagara. In Sinhalese it has been referred to as Devundara and Devinuwara, meaning City of Gods and Devundara is Southern most point in Sri Lanka
Until the late 16th century a historic temple port town complex housed merchants from around Asia. . A multi-religious site, its primary deity was the Buddhist god Upulvan and at its zenith was one of the most celebrated religious sites of the island, containing a thousand statues of the various sects of Hinduism and Buddhism.

Upulvan*  Upul=Dark Blue Van=Vanna (pali)=Varna. Sinhala: උපුල්වන් ‍දෙවියෝ, Pali: Uppalavanna; Sanskrit: Utpalvarna. Now used to mean Vishnu. First mentioned in Mahavamsa as Vijaya (500 BC) being blessed by god Upulvan (see foot note 2) on arrival in Sri Lanka. Upulvan is considered the god whom the Buddha entrusted with the guardianship of Sri Lanka and Buddhism in the country. At the end of the 15th century, god Upulvan was identified with god Vishnu of Hinduism. Thereafter images of Upulvan as Vishnu were set beside the images of Buddha

So now to the Temples Tenavaram in Dondra/Devundara and Koneswaram in Trinco/Gokkana

Koneswaram in Gokkana
Apparently King Mahasen (277-304 AD) destroyed the Hindu Temple.  According to the Mahavamsa to quote
and founded three viharas, destroying temples of the (brahmanical) gods: the Gokanna (vihara), (and another vihara) in Erakavilla, (and a third) in the village of the Brahman Kalanda;13

King Mahasen, initially a Mahayanist and later went back to Theravada. Built 16 reservoirs including Minneriya. Minneriya reservoir is now the site of the largest gathering of Elephants. Mahasen was regarded as a god or deity, and was called Minneri Deviyo (God of Minneriya).
In that same chapter “At the place of the yakkha Kalavela14 he built a thupa”, which reiterates the claim the Yakkas were real people.

The deep ocean where Portuguese are reputed to topple the Temple, there are Buddhist and Hindu ruins
Just a few years later in 1956, the famous Arthur C Clarke uncovered underwater masonry, architectural and idol images of the original temple. In his 1957 book ‘the Reefs of Taprobane’, Clarke identified at least 3 Hindu temples as having been build on or around Swami rock over the millennia. At that time, he said they were probably the most photographed underwater ruins in the world.
Arthur C Clarke description of first sights underwater.
https://www.penn.museum/sites/expedition/ceylon-and-the-underwater-archaeologist/
Recent Dive clip
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yRIhTEHThwc

 

Tenavaram in Dondra/Devundara/DeviNuwara.
DeviNuwara is dotted with many temples, Buddhist and Hindu. Pothgul and Galge are the lesser known but ancient buildings.
Devundara is multi-religious complex, the Buddhist temple and the Upulvan devale (shrine) was started by King Dappula II in the 7th century AD.
https://i0.wp.com/amazinglanka.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/83139.jpg?ssl=1

*I suspect a lot of merging of pre Buddhist gods with Hindu Gods. Much like the dynamics in the Caribbean African Gods being merged with Catholic Saints.  See Link below for synopsis.
https://scholar.library.miami.edu/emancipation/religion1.htm

Blasphemy and blasphemy laws in Pakistan

This was on old post about blasphemy laws that I wrote in 2015. It is on the site, but hard to search for, so i decided to repost it now that blasphemy is again in the news with protesters in Pakistan demanding the French ambassador be expelled, the country in lockdown and several people including policemen already killed in riots. It is possible that the main driver of this particular episode is something else entirely (for example, cracks in the ruling junta or between GHQ and Imran Khan) but the blasphemy meme-complex provides the fuel for this fire, even if it is being cynically used by some oversmart idiot in the ruling elite/intelligence agencies.

Most of this is picked out of a past post about the cruel blasphemy execution (by being burned alive) of a Christian couple in Pakistan. I am reposting because blasphemy is in the news again and I cannot count the number of times someone has managed to say “colonial era blasphemy laws in Pakistan” in a misleading manner. I wanted to have a post handy where I could direct them, so here it is, a quick overview of the blasphemy issue in Pakistan

A blasphemy law was part of the 19th century Indian Penal code as section 295.. It was not a bad law at all and the lazy habit of blaming it for later blasphemy law crap in the Indian subcontinent is just that: a lazy habit.

Here is section 295 of the Indian Penal Code of 1860:

 Injuring or defiling place of worship with intent to insult the religion of any class.—Whoever destroys, damages or defiles any place of worship, or any object held sacred by any class of persons with the intention of thereby insulting the religion of any class of persons or with the knowledge that any class of persons is likely to consider such destruction, damage or defile­ment as an insult to their religion, shall be punishable with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

The aim of the law was to prevent/punish things like someone throwing a dead pig into a mosque or a cow’s head into a temple. An actual physical desecration is to be punished. This seems like an eminently sensible law  and cannot really be blamed for all the evils that came later. But in the 1920s there was a famous case in Lahore where a Hindu publisher was arrested by the colonial authorities after Muslims agitated against him for having published a book called Rangila Rasul (“merry prophet”). The British colonial authorities tried to prosecute him for hurting the religious sentiments of Muslims, but the high court in Lahore (quite properly) found him innocent because there was no law on the books against just publishing a book, no matter how offensive it may be to some religious group. Fearing future communal discord from such provocations, the British then had the legislative assembly add section 295A to the law in order to criminalize deliberate attempts to “outrage the religious feelings of any community”. This section states:

Whoever, with deliberate and malicious intention of outraging the religious feelings of any class of citizens of India, by words, either spoken or written, or by signs or by visible representations or otherwise], insults or attempts to insult the religion or the religious beliefs of that class, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to 4[three years], or with fine, or with both. 

But even with this new and expanded article 295A in place, prosecutions for blasphemy were few and far between until, in the 1980s, General Zia added two new sections to the law in Pakistan and really set the ball rolling.  These infamous sections are labelled 295B and 295C.

295-B:  Defiling the copy of Holy Qur’an. Whoever wilfully defiles, damages or desecrates a copy of the Holy Qur’an or of an extract there from or uses it in any derogatory manner for any unlawful purpose shall be punishable with imprisonment for life.

295-C: use of derogatory remarks etc., in respect of the Holy Prophet: – who ever by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation, or by any imputation innuendo, or insinuation, directly, defiles the sacred name of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) shall be punished with death, or imprisonment for life and shall also be liable for fine.

Note that the law no longer requires that the offense be malicious in intent. Intent is no longer an issue. Insulting the Quran or the prophet, even unintentionally, is now punishable by death. To seal the deal, in 1991 the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan struck down the option of life imprisonment and made the death penalty obligatory. 
And of course, the new amendments only apply to blasphemy against Islam, not against all religions (in this sense, the new laws are more “rational” and internally coherent, since all religions blaspheme against all other religions as a matter of course, so the original law was not coherent in principle, though still workable in practice). Between 1984 to 2004, 5,000 cases of blasphemy were registered in Pakistan and 964 people were charged and accused of blasphemy; 479 Muslims, 340 Ahmadis, 119 Christians, 14 Hindus and 10 others. Thirty-two people charged with blasphemy were killed extra-judicially during that time. More have died since. Eighty-six percent of all the cases were reported in Punjab.

Every time the shit hits the fan, many liberal people start hoping that this blasphemy law can be changed to finally stop or slow down this torrent of prosecutions and killings. Others have noted that the law is not the problem, free-lance enforcement of a broader blasphemy meme in the Muslim community is the problem and will likely persist even if the law is repealed. In my view the law is not the only problem, but it IS a very potent symbol of the surrender of state and society in front of the blasphemy meme. Repeal of the law will not kill that meme, but repeal of the law will be an equally powerful signal that things have changed and that state and society no longer approve of the killing of blasphemers. It will not end the problem, but it will be the beginning of the end. Repeal of the law is not a sufficient condition for this nightmare to end, but it is a very important necessary condition.

Unfortunately, I don’t think such repeal or amendment is actually likely in the foreseeable future. My predictions: Continue reading “Blasphemy and blasphemy laws in Pakistan”

Monkeys and the Indo-Europeans – Revised & Enlarged

𝐌𝐨𝐧𝐤𝐞𝐲𝐬 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐈𝐧𝐝𝐨-𝐄𝐮𝐫𝐨𝐩𝐞𝐚𝐧𝐬 – Revised & Enlarged


(In view of Ugra’s very useful comment, I had to look deeper and found that the post itself needed revision. So here it is.)

𝐓𝐡𝐞 𝐥𝐢𝐧𝐠𝐮𝐢𝐬𝐭𝐢𝐜 𝐚𝐫𝐠𝐮𝐦𝐞𝐧𝐭


𝗚𝗮𝗺𝗸𝗿𝗲𝗹𝗶𝗱𝘇𝗲 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗜𝘃𝗮𝗻𝗼𝘃, 𝘁𝘄𝗼 𝗺𝗮𝗷𝗼𝗿 𝗹𝗶𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗶𝘀𝘁𝘀 𝗵𝗮𝗶𝗹𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗺𝗲𝗿 𝗦𝗼𝘃𝗶𝗲𝘁 𝗨𝗻𝗶𝗼𝗻, 𝗰𝗮𝗺𝗲 𝗼𝘂𝘁 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵 𝗮 𝗺𝗮𝗷𝗼𝗿 𝗯𝗼𝗼𝗸 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝟭𝟵𝟴𝟬𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝗥𝘂𝘀𝘀𝗶𝗮𝗻, 𝘄𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝘆 𝗽𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗼𝘀𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗔𝗿𝗺𝗲𝗻𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗵𝗼𝗺𝗲𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗼𝗿𝘆 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗼𝗿𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗻𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀. 𝗧𝗵𝗲𝘆 𝗺𝗮𝗱𝗲 𝘀𝗲𝘃𝗲𝗿𝗮𝗹 𝗮𝗿𝗴𝘂𝗺𝗲𝗻𝘁𝘀 𝘁𝗼 𝘀𝘂𝗽𝗽𝗼𝗿𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗶𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗼𝗿𝘆. 𝗠𝗮𝗻𝘆 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝘀𝗲 𝗮𝗿𝗴𝘂𝗺𝗲𝗻𝘁𝘀 𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗶𝗱𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗮𝗹𝗹𝘆 𝗯𝗲𝘁𝘁𝗲𝗿 𝘀𝘂𝗽𝗽𝗼𝗿𝘁 𝗮𝗻 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗵𝗼𝗺𝗲𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗣𝗿𝗼𝘁𝗼-𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻. 𝗢𝗻𝗲 𝘀𝘂𝗰𝗵 𝗮𝗿𝗴𝘂𝗺𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝘄𝗮𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗶𝗿 𝗽𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗼𝘀𝗮𝗹 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗣𝗿𝗼𝘁𝗼-𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀 𝘄𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗮𝘄𝗮𝗿𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗯𝗲𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝘆 𝗱𝗶𝘀𝗽𝗲𝗿𝘀𝗲𝗱 𝗶.𝗲. 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝘆 𝗸𝗻𝗲𝘄 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗶𝗿 𝗵𝗼𝗺𝗲𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗱.

𝗧𝗼 𝗽𝘂𝘁 𝗶𝘁 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗶𝗿 𝗼𝘄𝗻 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱𝘀 –

𝑾𝒊𝒅𝒆𝒍𝒚 𝒅𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒃𝒖𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝒄𝒐𝒈𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆 𝒘𝒐𝒓𝒅𝒔 𝒇𝒐𝒓 ‘𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚, 𝒂𝒑𝒆’ 𝒊𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒊𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝑰𝒏𝒅𝒐-𝑬𝒖𝒓𝒐𝒑𝒆𝒂𝒏 𝒅𝒊𝒂𝒍𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒔 𝒎𝒂𝒌𝒆 𝒊𝒕 𝒑𝒐𝒔𝒔𝒊𝒃𝒍𝒆 𝒕𝒐 𝒑𝒐𝒔𝒊𝒕 𝒂 𝒘𝒆𝒍𝒍-𝒅𝒆𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒆𝒅 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒇𝒐𝒓𝒎 𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝑷𝒓𝒐𝒕𝒐-𝑰𝒏𝒅𝒐-𝑬𝒖𝒓𝒐𝒑𝒆𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒊𝒎𝒆 𝒅𝒆𝒑𝒕𝒉. 𝑻𝒉𝒆 𝒄𝒐𝒈𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒔 𝒇𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒐 𝒕𝒘𝒐 𝒇𝒐𝒓𝒎𝒂𝒍 𝒔𝒆𝒕𝒔, 𝒐𝒏𝒆 𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒉 𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍 𝒌- 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒐𝒏𝒆 𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒕 𝒊𝒕. 𝑺𝒌𝒕. 𝒌𝒂𝒑𝒊- ‘𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚’ … 𝑮𝒌. 𝒌𝒆𝒑𝒐𝒔 – 𝒌𝒆𝒃𝒐𝒔 ‘𝒍𝒐𝒏𝒈-𝒕𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒆𝒅 𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚’… 𝑶𝑰𝒄𝒆𝒍. 𝒂𝒑𝒊, 𝑶𝑬 𝒂𝒑𝒂 (𝑬𝒏𝒈𝒍. 𝒂𝒑𝒆), 𝑶𝑯𝑮 𝒂𝒇𝒇𝒐 (𝑮𝒆𝒓. 𝑨𝒇𝒇𝒆), 𝑪𝒆𝒍𝒕𝒊𝒄 𝒂𝒃𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒐𝒔… 𝑶𝑹𝒖𝒔𝒔. 𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒄𝒂 (𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒊𝒄𝒂), 𝒐𝒑𝒚𝒏𝒊 ‘𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚, 𝒂𝒑𝒆’… 𝑶𝑷𝒐𝒍. 𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒄𝒂 (𝒍5𝒕𝒉 𝒄𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒚), 𝑪𝒛. 𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒄𝒆, 𝑼𝑺𝒐𝒓𝒃. 𝒘𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒄𝒂, 𝑷𝒐𝒍𝒂𝒃. 𝒐𝒑𝒐, 𝑺𝒆𝒓𝒃𝒐-𝑪𝒓. 𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒄𝒂. 𝑺𝒍𝒐𝒗𝒆𝒏𝒆 𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒄𝒂.

𝗜𝗻 𝗮𝗱𝗱𝗶𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻, 𝘄𝗲 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲  𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗔𝗿𝗺𝗲𝗻𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗸𝗮𝗽𝗶𝗸 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗠𝗶𝗱𝗱𝗹𝗲 𝗣𝗲𝗿𝘀𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗸𝗮𝗯𝗶𝗴. 𝗦𝗼 𝘄𝗲 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗰𝗼𝗴𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗶𝗻 𝗦𝗮𝗻𝘀𝗸𝗿𝗶𝘁, 𝗚𝗿𝗲𝗲𝗸, 𝗜𝗿𝗮𝗻𝗶𝗮𝗻, 𝗔𝗿𝗺𝗲𝗻𝗶𝗮𝗻, 𝗚𝗲𝗿𝗺𝗮𝗻𝗶𝗰, 𝗖𝗲𝗹𝘁𝗶𝗰 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗦𝗹𝗮𝘃𝗶𝗰 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻.

𝗚𝗮𝗺𝗸𝗿𝗲𝗹𝗶𝗱𝘇𝗲 & 𝗜𝘃𝗮𝗻𝗼𝘃, 𝘁𝗵𝗼𝘂𝗴𝗵 𝗮𝗿𝗴𝘂𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝘄𝗮𝘀 𝗮𝗹𝗿𝗲𝗮𝗱𝘆 𝗸𝗻𝗼𝘄𝗻 𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗶𝗿 𝗵𝗼𝗺𝗲𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗱, 𝗶𝗻𝘀𝗶𝘀𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗵𝗮𝗱 𝗰𝗼𝗺𝗲 𝗶𝗻𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗿𝗼𝘂𝗴𝗵 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗶𝗿 𝗰𝗼𝗻𝘁𝗮𝗰𝘁 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵 𝗦𝗼𝘂𝘁𝗵𝘄𝗲𝘀𝘁 𝗔𝘀𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗼𝗿 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀. 𝗧𝗵𝗲𝘆 𝗰𝗶𝘁𝗲 𝗔𝗸𝗸𝗮𝗱𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝘂𝗸𝘂𝗽𝘂, 𝗛𝗲𝗯𝗿𝗲𝘄 𝗸𝗼𝗽, 𝗔𝗿𝗮𝗺𝗮𝗶𝗰 𝗸𝗼𝗽𝗮, 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗘𝗴𝘆𝗽𝘁𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗴𝗷𝗳 – ‘𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆, 𝗮𝗽𝗲’ 𝗮𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗲𝗮𝗿𝗹𝘆 𝗲𝘅𝗮𝗺𝗽𝗹𝗲𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀.

𝗜𝗻 𝗮𝗱𝗱𝗶𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻, 𝗞𝗹𝗲𝗶𝗻 𝗽𝗼𝗶𝗻𝘁𝘀 𝘁𝗼 𝗠𝗮𝗻𝗱𝗮𝗶𝗰 𝗾𝘂𝗽𝗮 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗦𝘆𝗿𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗾𝘄𝗽. 𝗛𝗼𝘄𝗲𝘃𝗲𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝘀𝘁 𝗶𝗺𝗽𝗼𝗿𝘁𝗮𝗻𝘁𝗹𝘆, 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗼𝗹𝗱𝗲𝘀𝘁 𝗮𝘁𝘁𝗲𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁 𝗰𝗼𝗺𝗲𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝟯𝗿𝗱 𝗺𝗶𝗹𝗹𝗲𝗻𝗻𝗶𝘂𝗺 𝗕𝗖, 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝘂𝗺𝗲𝗿𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱, 𝗮𝗰𝗰𝗼𝗿𝗱𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗼 𝗞𝗹𝗲𝗶𝗻, 𝘄𝗮𝘀 𝗽𝗿𝗼𝗻𝗼𝘂𝗻𝗰𝗲𝗱 𝗮𝘀 𝘂𝗴𝘂𝗯𝗶. 𝗜𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝘂𝘀 𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗿𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝘀𝗽𝗿𝗲𝗮𝗱 𝗶𝗻 𝗮 𝗰𝘂𝗹𝘁𝘂𝗿𝗮𝗹 𝗺𝗶𝗹𝗶𝗲𝘂 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗶𝗻𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗮𝗰𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝘇𝗼𝗻𝗲 𝗹𝗮𝗿𝗴𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝗱𝗼𝗺𝗶𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝗯𝘆 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻, 𝗦𝘂𝗺𝗲𝗿𝗶𝗮𝗻 & 𝗦𝗲𝗺𝗶𝘁𝗶𝗰 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗶𝘁𝘀 𝗼𝗿𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗻𝘀 𝗴𝗼 𝗱𝗲𝗲𝗽 𝗶𝗻𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗕𝗿𝗼𝗻𝘇𝗲 𝗔𝗴𝗲. 𝗚𝗲𝗼𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗵𝗶𝗰𝗮𝗹𝗹𝘆, 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝘀𝘁 𝗹𝗶𝗸𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝗿𝗲𝗴𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝗶𝗻𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗮𝗰𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗶𝘀 𝗦𝗼𝘂𝘁𝗵𝘄𝗲𝘀𝘁 𝗔𝘀𝗶𝗮 𝗼𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁.

𝗪𝗵𝗶𝗹𝗲 𝘄𝗲 𝗸𝗻𝗼𝘄 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝟮𝗻𝗱 𝗺𝗶𝗹𝗹𝗲𝗻𝗻𝗶𝘂𝗺 𝗕𝗖𝗘, 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁 𝘄𝗮𝘀 𝗱𝗼𝗺𝗶𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝗯𝘆 𝗦𝗲𝗺𝗶𝘁𝗶𝗰 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀, 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗶𝘀 𝗮𝘁𝘁𝗲𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗱, 𝗲𝘃𝗲𝗻 𝗲𝗮𝗿𝗹𝗶𝗲𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁, 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝟯𝗿𝗱 𝗺𝗶𝗹𝗹𝗲𝗻𝗻𝗶𝘂𝗺 𝗕𝗖𝗘 𝗮𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝘂𝗺𝗲𝗿𝗶𝗮𝗻𝘀.

𝗡𝗼𝘄, 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗽𝗿𝗼𝗯𝗹𝗲𝗺 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵 𝘀𝗲𝗲𝗸𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗼𝗿𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗻𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝗲𝗺𝗶𝘁𝗶𝗰 𝗼𝗿 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀 𝗶𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗮𝗿𝗲 𝗻𝗼𝘁 𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗶𝘃𝗲 𝘁𝗼 𝗮𝗻𝘆 𝗽𝗹𝗮𝗰𝗲 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁. 𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝘀𝘁𝗮𝗻𝗱𝗮𝗿𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗼𝗿𝘆 𝘀𝗼 𝗳𝗮𝗿 𝗵𝗮𝘀 𝗯𝗲𝗲𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗶𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝗲𝗶𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗿𝗼𝘂𝗴𝗵 𝗰𝗼𝗻𝘁𝗮𝗰𝘁 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗘𝗴𝘆𝗽𝘁𝗶𝗮𝗻𝘀 𝗼𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗰𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻𝘀  𝗼f 𝗠𝗲𝘀𝗼𝗽𝗼𝘁𝗮𝗺𝗶𝗮, 𝗔𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗼𝗹𝗶𝗮, 𝗟𝗲𝘃𝗮𝗻𝘁 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗔𝗲𝗴𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗰𝗮𝗺𝗲 𝘁𝗼 𝗸𝗻𝗼𝘄 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀. 𝗧𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗲, 𝗶𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝗲𝗶𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗘𝗴𝘆𝗽𝘁𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗼𝗿 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗶𝗻 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀 𝘀𝗵𝗼𝘂𝗹𝗱 𝗱𝗲𝗿𝗶𝘃𝗲.

T𝗵𝗲 𝗘𝗴𝘆𝗽𝘁𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗶𝘀 𝗾𝘂𝗶𝘁𝗲 𝗱𝗶𝗳𝗳𝗲𝗿𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗹𝗼𝗼𝗸𝘀 𝘂𝗻𝗹𝗶𝗸𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝘁𝗼 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗯𝗲𝗲𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘀𝗼𝘂𝗿𝗰𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗻𝗼 𝗰𝗼𝗻𝘃𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗮𝗿𝗴𝘂𝗺𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝗵𝗮𝘀 𝗯𝗲𝗲𝗻 𝗺𝗮𝗱𝗲 𝗯𝘆 𝗮𝗻𝘆 𝗹𝗶𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗶𝘀𝘁 𝘁𝗼 𝘀𝘂𝗴𝗴𝗲𝘀𝘁 𝘀𝘂𝗰𝗵 𝗮 𝘁𝗿𝗮𝗻𝘀𝗺𝗶𝘀𝘀𝗶𝗼𝗻. 𝗠𝗼𝗿𝗲 𝗽𝗲𝗿𝘁𝗶𝗻𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗹𝘆, 𝗶𝘁 𝗻𝗼𝘄 𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗿𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗲𝘃𝗲𝗻 𝗶𝗻 𝗘𝗴𝘆𝗽𝘁, 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗺𝗮𝘆 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗴𝗼𝗻𝗲 𝗹𝗼𝗻𝗴 𝗲𝘅𝘁𝗶𝗻𝗰𝘁 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘄𝗮𝘀 𝗹𝗶𝗸𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝗶𝗺𝗽𝗼𝗿𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝘃𝗶𝗮 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗛𝗼𝗿𝗻 𝗼𝗳 𝗔𝗳𝗿𝗶𝗰𝗮, 𝘀𝗼𝘂𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗮𝘀𝘁 𝗼𝗳 𝗘𝗴𝘆𝗽𝘁. 𝗙𝗼𝗿 𝗲𝘅𝗮𝗺𝗽𝗹𝗲, 𝗶𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗯𝗮𝗯𝗼𝗼𝗻 𝘄𝗵𝗶𝗰𝗵 𝗶𝘀 𝗺𝗼𝘀𝘁 𝗽𝗿𝗼𝗺𝗶𝗻𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗹𝘆 𝗽𝗿𝗲𝘀𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗶𝗰𝗼𝗻𝗼𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗵𝘆 𝗼𝗳 𝗮𝗻𝗰𝗶𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝗘𝗴𝘆𝗽𝘁, 𝘆𝗲𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗶𝗿 𝗿𝗮𝗻𝗴𝗲 𝗼𝗳  𝗵𝗮𝗯𝗶𝘁𝗮𝘁 𝗱𝗶𝗱 𝗻𝗼𝘁 𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗹𝘂𝗱𝗲 𝗘𝗴𝘆𝗽𝘁.

𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝗴𝗲𝗼𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗵𝗶𝗰 𝗱𝗶𝘀𝘁𝗿𝗶𝗯𝘂𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘃𝗲𝗿𝘃𝗲𝘁 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆, 𝗮𝗻𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗰𝗼𝗺𝗺𝗼𝗻 𝗶𝗻 𝗘𝗴𝘆𝗽𝘁𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗶𝗰𝗼𝗻𝗼𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗵𝘆 𝗶𝘀 𝗲𝘃𝗲𝗻 𝗿𝗲𝗺𝗼𝘁𝗲.

𝗧𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝗹𝗲𝗮𝘃𝗲𝘀 𝘂𝘀 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗼𝗿 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗮𝘀𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶 𝗦𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗵𝘂 𝗖𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻, 𝘄𝗵𝗶𝗰𝗵 𝗶𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗼𝗻𝗹𝘆 𝗕𝗿𝗼𝗻𝘇𝗲 𝗔𝗴𝗲 𝗰𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝘄𝗵𝗼𝘀𝗲 𝗴𝗲𝗼𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗵𝘆 𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗲𝗲𝗱 𝗼𝘃𝗲𝗿𝗹𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗲𝗱 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗻𝗮𝘁𝘂𝗿𝗮𝗹 𝗵𝗮𝗯𝗶𝘁𝗮𝘁 𝗼𝗳 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀. 𝗦𝗼 𝗽𝗿𝗼𝘃𝗶𝘀𝗶𝗼𝗻𝗮𝗹𝗹𝘆, 𝗶𝘁 𝗺𝗮𝘆𝗯𝗲 𝗮𝗿𝗴𝘂𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗺𝗼𝘀𝘁 𝗹𝗶𝗸𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝘀𝗽𝗿𝗲𝗮𝗱 𝗶𝗻𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲 𝗼𝗿 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀, 𝘄𝗵𝗮𝘁𝗲𝘃𝗲𝗿 𝗶𝘁 𝗼𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝘆 𝗺𝗮𝘆 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗯𝗲𝗲𝗻.

𝗗𝗶𝗴𝗴𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗶𝗻𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗹𝗶𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗶𝘀𝘁𝗶𝗰 𝗮𝘀𝗽𝗲𝗰𝘁 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀, 𝘄𝗲 𝗳𝗶𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗮𝘀 𝗽𝗲𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗣𝗿𝗮𝗰𝘁𝗶𝗰𝗮𝗹 𝗦𝗮𝗻𝘀𝗸𝗿𝗶𝘁 𝗘𝗻𝗴𝗹𝗶𝘀𝗵 𝗗𝗶𝗰𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻𝗮𝗿𝘆, 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗸𝗮𝗽𝗶, 𝘂𝘀𝘂𝗮𝗹𝗹𝘆 𝗿𝗲𝗳𝗲𝗿𝗿𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗼 ‘𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆’ 𝗰𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝗻 ‘𝗲𝗹𝗲𝗽𝗵𝗮𝗻𝘁’, 𝘁𝗵𝗲 ‘𝘀𝘂𝗻’, ‘𝗶𝗺𝗽𝘂𝗿𝗲 𝗯𝗲𝗻𝘇𝗼𝗶𝗻’, ‘𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗲𝗻𝘀𝗲’, 𝗮 ‘𝘀𝗽𝗲𝗰𝗶𝗲𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗸𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗻𝗷𝗮 𝘁𝗿𝗲𝗲’ 𝗲𝘁𝗰. 𝗸𝗮𝗽𝗶𝗹𝗼𝗵𝗮𝗺 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀 ‘𝗯𝗿𝗮𝘀𝘀’, 𝗸𝗮𝗽𝗶𝘀𝗵𝗮𝗸 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀 ‘𝗰𝗮𝗯𝗯𝗮𝗴𝗲’, 𝗸𝗮𝗽𝗶𝗹𝗮/𝗸𝗮𝗽𝗶𝘀𝗮 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀 ‘𝘁𝗮𝘄𝗻𝘆, 𝗯𝗿𝗼𝘄𝗻𝗶𝘀𝗵 𝗼𝗿 𝗿𝗲𝗱𝗱𝗶𝘀𝗵’ 𝗰𝗼𝗹𝗼𝘂𝗿, 𝗸𝗮𝗽𝗮𝗻𝗮 𝗶𝘀 𝗮 ‘𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗺’ 𝗼𝗿 ‘𝗰𝗮𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗽𝗶𝗹𝗮𝗿’, 𝗸𝗮𝗽𝗼𝘁𝗮 𝗶𝘀 𝗮 ‘𝗽𝗶𝗴𝗲𝗼𝗻’ 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘀𝗼 𝗼𝗻. 𝗔𝘀 𝗽𝗲𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝗮𝗻𝘀𝗸𝗿𝗶𝘁 𝗘𝘁𝘆𝗺𝗼𝗹𝗼𝗴𝗶𝗰𝗮𝗹 𝗗𝗶𝗰𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻𝗮𝗿𝘆, 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗸𝗮𝗽𝗶 𝗶𝘀 𝘀𝗮𝗶𝗱 𝘁𝗼 𝗱𝗲𝗿𝗶𝘃𝗲 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗿𝗼𝗼𝘁 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 *𝗸𝗮𝗺𝗽 𝘄𝗵𝗶𝗰𝗵 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀 ‘𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗿𝗲𝗺𝗯𝗹𝗲’ 𝗼𝗿 ‘𝘀𝗵𝗮𝗸𝗲’. 𝗔 𝗱𝗲𝗿𝗶𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶𝘃𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗸𝗮𝗺𝗽𝗿𝗮 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀 ‘𝘁𝗿𝗲𝗺𝗯𝗹𝗶𝗻𝗴’ 𝗼𝗿 ‘𝘀𝗵𝗮𝗸𝗲𝗻’ 𝗯𝘂𝘁 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 ‘𝗺𝗼𝘃𝗮𝗯𝗹𝗲’, ‘𝗮𝗴𝗶𝗹𝗲’ & ‘𝗾𝘂𝗶𝗰𝗸’. 𝗔 𝗹𝗶𝗸𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝗱𝗲𝗿𝗶𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶𝘃𝗲 𝗼𝗳 *𝗸𝗮𝗺𝗽 𝗶𝘀 𝗸𝗮𝗽 𝘄𝗵𝗶𝗰𝗵 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀 ‘𝘁𝗼 𝗺𝗼𝘃𝗲’. 𝗧𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗲 𝗸𝗮𝗽𝗶, 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗰𝗼𝗻𝘁𝗲𝘅𝘁 𝗼𝗳 𝗮 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆, 𝗺𝗮𝘆 𝗽𝗹𝗮𝘂𝘀𝗶𝗯𝗹𝘆 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻 ‘𝗼𝗻𝗲 𝘄𝗵𝗼 𝗺𝗼𝘃𝗲𝘀 𝗾𝘂𝗶𝗰𝗸𝗹𝘆’, 𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝗽𝘁 𝗱𝗲𝘀𝗰𝗿𝗶𝗽𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻.

𝗟𝗼𝗼𝗸𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗣𝗿𝗼𝘁𝗼-𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝘁𝗲𝗰𝗲𝗱𝗲𝗻𝘁𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱, 𝘄𝗲 𝗰𝗼𝗺𝗲 𝗮𝗰𝗿𝗼𝘀𝘀 𝗮 𝗿𝗼𝗼𝘁 *𝗸𝗮𝗽 𝗼𝗿 *𝗸𝗲𝗵𝗽, 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗼 ‘𝘀𝗲𝗶𝘇𝗲 𝗼𝗿 𝗴𝗿𝗮𝘀𝗽 𝗼𝗿 𝗵𝗼𝗹𝗱’. 𝗣𝗼𝘀𝘀𝗶𝗯𝗹𝗲 𝗱𝗲𝗿𝗶𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶𝘃𝗲𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝗿𝗼𝗼𝘁 𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗹𝘂𝗱𝗲 𝗚𝗿𝗲𝗲𝗸 𝗸𝗮𝗽𝗮𝗻𝗲 – ‘𝘄𝗮𝗴𝗼𝗻’, 𝗸𝗼𝗽𝗲 – ‘𝗴𝗿𝗶𝗽,𝗵𝗮𝗻𝗱𝗹𝗲’, 𝗸𝗮𝗽𝗼𝘀 – ‘𝗴𝗮𝗿𝗱𝗲𝗻, 𝗼𝗿𝗰𝗵𝗮𝗿𝗱’, 𝗹𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗻 𝗰𝗮𝗽𝘁𝘂𝘀 – ‘𝗰𝗮𝗽𝘁𝘂𝗿𝗲𝗱, 𝘀𝗲𝗶𝘇𝗲𝗱, 𝘁𝗮𝗸𝗲𝗻’. 𝗜𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝘀𝗮𝗶𝗱 𝘁𝗼 𝗯𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗿𝗼𝗼𝘁 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗘𝗻𝗴𝗹𝗶𝘀𝗵 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱𝘀 ‘𝗵𝗮𝘄𝗸’ 𝗮𝗻𝗱 ‘𝗰𝗮𝗽𝘁𝗶𝘃𝗲’ 𝗮𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗴 𝗺𝗮𝗻𝘆 𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿𝘀.

𝗪𝗵𝗶𝗹𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗣𝗿𝗼𝘁𝗼-𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗿𝗼𝗼𝘁 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗶𝘁𝘀 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗳𝗮𝗶𝗹 𝘁𝗼 𝗮𝗱𝗲𝗾𝘂𝗮𝘁𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝗲𝘅𝗽𝗹𝗮𝗶𝗻 𝗮𝗹𝗹 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝘆𝗿𝗶𝗮𝗱 𝗱𝗶𝗳𝗳𝗲𝗿𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝘄𝗮𝘆𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝘄𝗵𝗶𝗰𝗵 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗱𝗲𝗿𝗶𝘃𝗲𝗱 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱𝘀 𝗮𝗿𝗲 𝘂𝘀𝗲𝗱 𝗶𝗻 𝘃𝗮𝗿𝗶𝗼𝘂𝘀 𝗜𝗘 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀, 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗼𝘂𝗿 𝗽𝘂𝗿𝗽𝗼𝘀𝗲 𝗶𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝗾𝘂𝗶𝘁𝗲 𝗮𝗱𝗲𝗾𝘂𝗮𝘁𝗲. 𝗸𝗮𝗽𝗶 𝗺𝗮𝘆 𝘁𝗵𝘂𝘀 𝗯𝗲 𝗱𝗲𝗿𝗶𝘃𝗲𝗱 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗣𝗜𝗘 𝗿𝗼𝗼𝘁 *𝗸𝗮𝗽 – ‘𝘁𝗼 𝘀𝗲𝗶𝘇𝗲, 𝗵𝗼𝗹𝗱’ 𝘁𝗼 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝘀 𝗼𝗻𝗲 𝘄𝗵𝗼 𝗴𝗿𝗮𝘀𝗽𝘀 𝗼𝗿 𝗰𝗮𝗻 𝗴𝗿𝗮𝘀𝗽. 𝗠𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀, 𝗾𝘂𝗶𝘁𝗲 𝘂𝗻𝗶𝗾𝘂𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝗮𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗴 𝗮𝗻𝗶𝗺𝗮𝗹𝘀, 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗮𝗯𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘁𝘆 𝘁𝗼 𝗴𝗿𝗮𝘀𝗽 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝗻𝗴𝘀 𝗼𝗿 𝗼𝗯𝗷𝗲𝗰𝘁𝘀 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗶𝗿 𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗲𝗹𝗶𝗺𝗯𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝘄𝗼𝘂𝗹𝗱 𝗻𝗼𝘁 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗴𝗼𝗻𝗲 𝘂𝗻𝗻𝗼𝘁𝗶𝗰𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗮𝗻𝗰𝗶𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝗽𝗲𝗼𝗽𝗹𝗲. 𝗧𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝗺𝗮𝘆 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝗲𝘅𝗽𝗹𝗮𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗻𝗮𝗺𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝗸𝗮𝗽𝗶 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗲𝗹𝗲𝗽𝗵𝗮𝗻𝘁 𝘀𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝗶𝘁 𝗰𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝗴𝗿𝗮𝘀𝗽 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵 𝗶𝘁𝘀 𝘁𝗿𝘂𝗻𝗸, 𝗮𝘀 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗵𝗮𝘄𝗸 𝗶𝗻 𝗘𝗻𝗴𝗹𝗶𝘀𝗵 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝗸𝗻𝗼𝘄𝗻 𝗴𝗿𝗮𝘀𝗽 𝗶𝘁𝘀 𝗽𝗿𝗲𝘆 𝗶𝗻 𝗶𝘁𝘀 𝘀𝗵𝗮𝗿𝗽 𝘁𝗮𝗹𝗼𝗻𝘀.

𝗜𝘁 𝗺𝗮𝘆 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗲 𝗯𝗲 𝗮𝗿𝗴𝘂𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗣𝗿𝗼𝘁𝗼-𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆, 𝗮𝘀 𝗮𝗿𝗴𝘂𝗲𝗱 𝗯𝘆 𝗚𝗮𝗺𝗸𝗿𝗲𝗹𝗶𝗱𝘇𝗲 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗜𝘃𝗮𝗻𝗼𝘃, 𝗶𝘀 𝗻𝗼𝘁 𝗮 𝗹𝗼𝗮𝗻 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗮𝗻𝘆 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲 𝗯𝘂𝘁 𝗱𝗲𝗿𝗶𝘃𝗲𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗮 𝘀𝗼𝘂𝗻𝗱 𝗣𝗜𝗘 𝗿𝗼𝗼𝘁. 𝗢𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝗵𝗮𝗻𝗱, 𝗻𝗼 𝘀𝗼𝘂𝗻𝗱 𝗲𝘁𝘆𝗺𝗼𝗹𝗼𝗴𝘆 𝗲𝘅𝗶𝘀𝘁𝘀 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝗲𝗺𝗶𝘁𝗶𝗰 𝗼𝗿 𝗦𝘂𝗺𝗲𝗿𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀. 𝗧𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝘄𝗼𝘂𝗹𝗱 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗶𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝘀𝗽𝗿𝗲𝗮𝗱 𝗶𝗻𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀.

𝗪𝗲 𝗮𝗹𝗿𝗲𝗮𝗱𝘆 𝗻𝗼𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝗲𝗮𝗿𝗹𝗶𝗲𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁 𝗺𝗮𝘆 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗯𝗲𝗲𝗻 𝗮 𝗹𝗼𝗮𝗻𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲(𝘀) 𝗼𝗳 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗼𝗿 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗮𝘀𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶 𝗦𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗵𝘂 𝗖𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗻𝗼𝘄 𝘄𝗲 𝗰𝗮𝗻 𝘀𝗲𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗶𝘀 𝗺𝗼𝘀𝘁 𝗹𝗶𝗸𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝗼𝗳 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗼𝗿𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗻. 𝗗𝗼𝗲𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻, 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀 𝗺𝗮𝘆 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗯𝗲𝗲𝗻 𝘀𝗽𝗼𝗸𝗲𝗻 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗮𝘀𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶 𝗦𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗵𝘂 𝗖𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 ?

𝐓𝐡𝐞 A𝐫𝐜𝐡𝐚𝐞𝐨𝐥𝐨𝐠𝐢𝐜𝐚𝐥 E𝐯𝐢𝐝𝐞𝐧𝐜𝐞


𝗧𝘂𝗿𝗻𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗮𝗿𝗰𝗵𝗮𝗲𝗼𝗹𝗼𝗴𝗶𝗰𝗮𝗹 𝗲𝘃𝗶𝗱𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲, 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝘄𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗱𝗲𝗽𝗶𝗰𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝗼𝗻 𝗳𝗿𝗲𝘀𝗰𝗼𝗲𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘀𝗲𝗮𝗹𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗼𝗯𝗷𝗲𝗰𝘁𝘀, 𝗮𝗰𝗰𝗲𝘀𝘀𝗼𝗿𝗶𝗲𝘀 𝘄𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗼𝗳𝘁𝗲𝗻 𝗳𝗮𝘀𝗵𝗶𝗼𝗻𝗲𝗱 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘀𝗵𝗮𝗽𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗿𝗶𝗴𝗵𝘁 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗕𝗿𝗼𝗻𝘇𝗲 𝗔𝗴𝗲. 𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝗶𝗻𝘀𝗽𝗶𝗿𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗮𝗿𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝘂𝘀𝘂𝗮𝗹𝗹𝘆 𝗰𝗼𝗻𝘀𝗶𝗱𝗲𝗿𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗼 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗰𝗼𝗺𝗲 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗲𝗶𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝗮𝗻𝗰𝗶𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝗘𝗴𝘆𝗽𝘁 𝗼𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻𝘀.

𝗕𝘂𝘁, 𝗶𝘁 𝗵𝗮𝘀 𝗻𝗼𝘄 𝗯𝗲𝗰𝗼𝗺𝗲 𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗿𝗲𝗮𝘀𝗶𝗻𝗴𝗹𝘆 𝗰𝗹𝗲𝗮𝗿, 𝗮𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝗿𝗲𝗰𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝘀𝘁𝘂𝗱𝘆 𝘀𝗵𝗼𝘄𝘀, 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗼𝗿 𝗯𝗮𝗯𝗼𝗼𝗻𝘀 𝘄𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗻𝗼𝘁 𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗶𝘃𝗲 𝘁𝗼 𝗘𝗴𝘆𝗽𝘁 𝗲𝗶𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗮𝗻𝗰𝗶𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝗘𝗴𝘆𝗽𝘁𝗶𝗮𝗻𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗺𝘀𝗲𝗹𝘃𝗲𝘀 𝗶𝗺𝗽𝗼𝗿𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗶𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗺𝘂𝗰𝗵 𝗳𝘂𝗿𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝘀𝗼𝘂𝘁𝗵 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗲𝗮𝘀𝘁, 𝗺𝗼𝘀𝘁𝗹𝘆 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗳𝗮𝗯𝗹𝗲𝗱 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗼𝗳 𝗽𝘂𝗻𝘁, 𝘄𝗵𝗶𝗰𝗵 𝗶𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗲𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗔𝗳𝗿𝗶𝗰𝗮𝗻 𝗰𝗼𝗮𝘀𝘁, 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘄𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗶𝗱𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗮𝗹𝗹𝘆, 𝗼𝗯𝗷𝗲𝗰𝘁𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗼𝗿𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗻 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝗿𝗲𝗮𝗰𝗵𝗲𝗱 𝗘𝗴𝘆𝗽𝘁.

𝗢𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝗵𝗮𝗻𝗱, 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗼𝗿 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗮𝘀𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶 𝗦𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗵𝘂 𝗱𝗼𝗺𝗮𝗶𝗻 𝘄𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗲𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗿𝗮𝘃𝗲𝗹𝗹𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘄𝗲𝘀𝘁𝘄𝗮𝗿𝗱 𝗮𝗹𝗿𝗲𝗮𝗱𝘆 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝟯𝗿𝗱 𝗺𝗶𝗹𝗹𝗲𝗻𝗻𝗶𝘂𝗺 𝗕𝗖𝗘.  𝗥𝗵𝗲𝘀𝘂𝘀 𝗺𝗮𝗰𝗮𝗾𝘂𝗲𝘀 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗯𝗲𝗲𝗻 𝗳𝗼𝘂𝗻𝗱 𝗯𝘂𝗿𝗶𝗲𝗱 𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘀𝗶𝘁𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝗦𝗵𝗮𝗵𝗿-𝗶-𝗦𝗼𝗸𝗵𝘁𝗮 𝗶𝗻 𝗜𝗿𝗮𝗻, 𝗳𝗮𝗿 𝗮𝘄𝗮𝘆 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗶𝘁𝘀 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗵𝗼𝗺𝗲𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗱. 𝗦𝗵𝗮𝗵𝗿-𝗶-𝗦𝗼𝗸𝗵𝘁𝗮 𝗶𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘀𝗶𝘁𝗲 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘄𝗵𝗶𝗰𝗵 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗮𝗷𝗼𝗿𝗶𝘁𝘆 𝗼𝗳 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 ‘𝗺𝗶𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗻𝘁’ 𝘀𝗮𝗺𝗽𝗹𝗲𝘀 𝘄𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗽𝘂𝗯𝗹𝗶𝘀𝗵𝗲𝗱 𝗯𝘆 𝗡𝗮𝗿𝗮𝘀𝗶𝗺𝗵𝗮𝗻 𝗲𝘁 𝗮𝗹. 𝗧𝗵𝘂𝘀, 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗰𝗼𝘂𝗹𝗱 𝘄𝗲𝗹𝗹 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗯𝗲𝗲𝗻 𝘁𝗿𝗮𝘃𝗲𝗹𝗹𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗹𝗼𝗻𝗴 𝗱𝗶𝘀𝘁𝗮𝗻𝗰𝗲𝘀 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗶𝗿 𝗵𝘂𝗺𝗮𝗻 𝗺𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝘀.

𝗔𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗲𝗮𝗿𝗹𝘆 𝗲𝘃𝗶𝗱𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗰𝗼𝗻𝘁𝗮𝗰𝘁𝘀 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵 𝗠𝗲𝘀𝗼𝗽𝗼𝘁𝗮𝗺𝗶𝗮 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗘𝗹𝗮𝗺 𝗮𝗿𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗳𝗶𝗴𝘂𝗿𝗶𝗻𝗲𝘀 𝘀𝘂𝗰𝗵 𝗮𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗴𝗼𝗹𝗱𝗲𝗻 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗼𝗻 𝗮 𝗽𝗶𝗻 𝗿𝗲𝗰𝗼𝘃𝗲𝗿𝗲𝗱 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗥𝗼𝘆𝗮𝗹 𝗖𝗲𝗺𝗲𝘁𝗲𝗿𝘆 𝗼𝗳 𝗨𝗿 𝗱𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗼 𝟮𝟲𝟬𝟬 𝗕𝗖 𝗼𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝘀𝘁𝗮𝘁𝘂𝗲𝘁𝘁𝗲 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗦𝘂𝘀𝗮 𝗱𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝟮𝟯𝟰𝟬-𝟮𝟭𝟬𝟬 𝗕𝗖.

𝗪𝗲 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗮 𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗿𝗮𝗰𝗼𝘁𝘁𝗮 𝗽𝗹𝗮𝗾𝘂𝗲𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗨𝗿 𝗱𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗲𝗻𝗱 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝟯𝗿𝗱 𝗺𝗶𝗹𝗹𝗲𝗻𝗻𝗶𝘂𝗺 𝘄𝗵𝗶𝗰𝗵 𝗱𝗲𝗽𝗶𝗰𝘁 𝗮𝗻 𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗲𝗿𝘁𝗮𝗶𝗻𝗲𝗿/𝗽𝗲𝗿𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗺𝗲𝗿, 𝗽𝗲𝗿𝗵𝗮𝗽𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗶𝗮, 𝗵𝗼𝗹𝗱𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗮 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗯𝘆 𝗮 𝗹𝗲𝗮𝘀𝗵 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗰𝗼𝗹𝗹𝗮𝗿. 𝗔𝗰𝗰𝗼𝗿𝗱𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗼 𝗖𝗮𝗿𝗼𝗹𝗲 𝗠𝗲𝗻𝗱𝗹𝗲𝘀𝗲𝗻,

𝑾𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒘𝒆 𝒂𝒑𝒑𝒆𝒂𝒓 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒕𝒐 𝒉𝒂𝒗𝒆 𝒐𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒔𝒆 𝒑𝒍𝒂𝒒𝒖𝒆𝒔 𝒊𝒔 𝒂𝒏 𝑰𝒏𝒅𝒊𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒓𝒂𝒅𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝒃𝒓𝒐𝒖𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒕𝒐 𝑼𝒓, 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒃𝒂𝒃𝒍𝒚 𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒆𝒏𝒅 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒆 3𝒓𝒅 𝒎𝒊𝒍𝒍𝒆𝒏𝒏𝒊𝒖𝒎 𝑩.𝑪., 𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒉𝒂𝒑𝒔 𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒉 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍 𝒂𝒑𝒑𝒆𝒂𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒂 𝑴𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚 𝑾𝒂𝒍𝒍𝒂𝒉 𝒘𝒉𝒐 𝒘𝒐𝒖𝒍𝒅 𝒏𝒐 𝒅𝒐𝒖𝒃𝒕 𝒉𝒂𝒗𝒆 𝒃𝒆𝒆𝒏 𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒚 𝒑𝒐𝒑𝒖𝒍𝒂𝒓, 𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒕𝒊𝒄𝒖𝒍𝒂𝒓𝒍𝒚 𝒂𝒕 𝒇𝒆𝒔𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒂𝒍𝒔.

𝗔𝗰𝗰𝗼𝗿𝗱𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗼 𝗞𝗹𝗲𝗶𝗻,

𝑻𝒉𝒆 𝒊𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒐𝒈𝒓𝒂𝒑𝒉𝒊𝒄 𝒆𝒗𝒊𝒅𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒖𝒔 𝒊𝒏𝒅𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒔 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝒂𝒔 𝒊𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒊𝒓𝒅 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒔𝒆𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒅 𝒎𝒊𝒍𝒍𝒆𝒏𝒏𝒊𝒖𝒎 𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚𝒔 𝒘𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝒊𝒎𝒑𝒐𝒓𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝒇𝒓𝒐𝒎 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒆𝒂𝒔𝒕, 𝒑𝒐𝒔𝒔𝒊𝒃𝒍𝒚 𝒇𝒓𝒐𝒎 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝑰𝒏𝒅𝒖𝒔 𝑽𝒂𝒍𝒍𝒆𝒚…  𝒊𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒇𝒊𝒓𝒔𝒕 𝒎𝒊𝒍𝒍𝒆𝒏𝒏𝒊𝒖𝒎 𝒂 𝒈𝒓𝒆𝒂𝒕 𝒏𝒖𝒎𝒃𝒆𝒓 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒊𝒔 𝒊𝒎𝒑𝒐𝒓𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝒆𝒙𝒐𝒕𝒊𝒄 𝒕𝒚𝒑𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒏𝒊𝒎𝒂𝒍 𝒉𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒆𝒅 𝒇𝒓𝒐𝒎 𝑬𝒈𝒚𝒑𝒕 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒘𝒂𝒔 𝒐𝒇 𝑨𝒇𝒓𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒏 𝒐𝒓𝒊𝒈𝒊𝒏. 𝑻𝒉𝒊𝒔 𝒊𝒔 𝒈𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒍𝒍𝒚 𝒃𝒐𝒓𝒏𝒆 𝒐𝒖𝒕 𝒃𝒚 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒆𝒑𝒊𝒈𝒓𝒂𝒑𝒉𝒊𝒄 𝒆𝒗𝒊𝒅𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒆. 𝑻𝒉𝒖𝒔 𝒊𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝑼𝒓 𝑰𝑰𝑰 𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒐𝒅 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚 𝒊𝒔 𝒓𝒆𝒇𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒐 𝒂𝒔 “𝒅𝒆𝒔𝒄𝒆𝒏𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒇𝒓𝒐𝒎 𝒊𝒕𝒔 𝒎𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒕𝒂𝒊𝒏, “𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒊𝒔, 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒃𝒂𝒃𝒍𝒚 𝒄𝒐𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒇𝒓𝒐𝒎 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒆𝒂𝒔𝒕... 𝒃𝒖𝒕 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝑵𝒆𝒐-𝑨𝒔𝒔𝒚𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒏 𝒂𝒏𝒏𝒂𝒍𝒔 𝒓𝒆𝒇𝒆𝒓 𝒕𝒐 𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚𝒔 𝒄𝒂𝒑𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒆𝒅 𝒐𝒓 𝒔𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝒂𝒔 𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒃𝒖𝒕𝒆 𝒇𝒓𝒐𝒎 𝑬𝒈𝒚𝒑𝒕…

𝗪𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝗾𝘂𝗶𝘁𝗲 𝗲𝗻𝗹𝗶𝗴𝗵𝘁𝗲𝗻𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗶𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗳𝗮𝗰𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗲𝗮𝗿𝗹𝗶𝗲𝗿 𝗽𝗲𝗿𝗶𝗼𝗱 𝘄𝗵𝗲𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝘂𝗺𝗲𝗿𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝘂𝗴𝘂𝗯𝗶 𝗶𝘀 𝗳𝗶𝗿𝘀𝘁 𝗿𝗲𝗰𝗼𝗿𝗱𝗲𝗱, 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝘁𝗼 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗯𝗲𝗲𝗻 𝗰𝗼𝗺𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗲𝗮𝘀𝘁 𝘃𝗶𝗮 𝗘𝗹𝗮𝗺 𝘂𝗹𝘁𝗶𝗺𝗮𝘁𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗼𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗵𝘂 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗮𝘀𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶 𝗖𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻. 𝗧𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝘄𝗼𝘂𝗹𝗱 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝘂𝗺𝗲𝗿𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝘂𝗴𝘂𝗯𝗶 𝘂𝗹𝘁𝗶𝗺𝗮𝘁𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝗱𝗲𝗿𝗶𝘃𝗲𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗮 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲, 𝗽𝗲𝗿𝗵𝗮𝗽𝘀 𝘃𝗶𝗮 𝗮𝗻 𝗘𝗹𝗮𝗺𝗶𝘁𝗲 𝗶𝗻𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗺𝗲𝗱𝗶𝗮𝗿𝘆 𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗺. 𝗧𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝗳𝘂𝗿𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝘀𝘁𝗿𝗲𝗻𝗴𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗻𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗮𝗿𝗴𝘂𝗺𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗵𝗮𝘀 𝗮 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗼𝗿𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗻.

𝗔𝗴𝗻𝗲𝘀 𝗦𝗽𝘆𝗰𝗸𝗲𝘁, 𝗽𝗼𝗶𝗻𝘁𝘀 𝗼𝘂𝘁 𝗰𝘆𝗹𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗲𝗿 𝘀𝗲𝗮𝗹𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗥𝗼𝘆𝗮𝗹 𝗖𝗲𝗺𝗲𝘁𝗲𝗿𝘆 𝗮𝘁 𝗨𝗿, 𝗠𝗲𝘀𝗼𝗽𝗼𝘁𝗮𝗺𝗶𝗮 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗦𝘂𝘀𝗮, 𝗘𝗹𝗮𝗺 (𝗪𝗲𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗜𝗿𝗮𝗻), 𝘄𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗮𝗿𝗲 𝗱𝗲𝗽𝗶𝗰𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝗶𝗻 𝗮 𝘀𝗶𝘁𝘁𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗽𝗼𝘀𝘁𝘂𝗿𝗲 𝗽𝗹𝗮𝘆𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗮 𝗳𝗹𝘂𝘁𝗲. 𝗦𝗼𝗺𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝘀𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗮 𝗰𝗹𝗲𝗮𝗿𝗹𝘆 𝘂𝗽𝘁𝘂𝗿𝗻𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗮𝗶𝗹, 𝗯𝘆 𝘄𝗵𝗶𝗰𝗵 𝘀𝗰𝗵𝗼𝗹𝗮𝗿𝘀 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗶𝗱𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗶𝗳𝗶𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗺 𝗮𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗛𝗮𝗻𝘂𝗺𝗮𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗿.

𝗩𝗶𝗸𝘁𝗼𝗿 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗶𝗮𝗻𝗶𝗱𝗶, 𝗰𝗿𝗲𝗱𝗶𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗱𝗶𝘀𝗰𝗼𝘃𝗲𝗿𝘆 𝗼𝗳 𝗕𝗠𝗔𝗖 𝗼𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝗰𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 ,𝗮𝗿𝗴𝘂𝗲𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝗿𝗰𝗵𝗮𝗲𝗼𝗹𝗼𝗴𝗶𝗰𝗮𝗹 𝗲𝘃𝗶𝗱𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝗦𝘆𝗿𝗼-𝗔𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗼𝗹𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗶𝗻𝗳𝗹𝘂𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝗼𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝗰𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻. 𝗛𝗲 𝗯𝗲𝗹𝗶𝗲𝘃𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝗰𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝘁𝗼 𝗯𝗲 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗜𝗿𝗮𝗻𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝘀𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗸𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗲 𝗶𝗻𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗽𝗿𝗲𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗽𝗲𝗿𝗰𝗲𝗶𝘃𝗲𝗱 𝗦𝘆𝗿𝗼-𝗔𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗼𝗹𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗶𝗻𝗳𝗹𝘂𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝗼𝗻 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗺𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗜𝗿𝗮𝗻𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗺𝗶𝗴𝗿𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗿𝗲𝗴𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗶𝗻𝘁𝗼 𝗖𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗿𝗮𝗹 𝗔𝘀𝗶𝗮. 𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁 𝗱𝘂𝗿𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗽𝗲𝗿𝗶𝗼𝗱 𝗵𝗮𝗱 𝘃𝗮𝗿𝗶𝗼𝘂𝘀 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗴𝗿𝗼𝘂𝗽𝘀 𝘀𝘂𝗰𝗵 𝗮𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗠𝗶𝘁𝗮𝗻𝗻𝗶, 𝗛𝗶𝘁𝘁𝗶𝘁𝗲𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗠𝘆𝗰𝗲𝗻𝗮𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀 𝗱𝗼𝗺𝗶𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗱𝘀𝗰𝗮𝗽𝗲.

𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗶𝗮𝗻𝗶𝗱𝗶 𝗶𝗻𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗽𝗿𝗲𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗱𝗲𝗽𝗶𝗰𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗼𝗳 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗼𝗻 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝘀𝗲𝗮𝗹𝘀 𝗮𝘀 𝘆𝗲𝘁 𝗮𝗻𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝗲𝘃𝗶𝗱𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝗶𝗻𝗳𝗹𝘂𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀.

𝗔𝘀 𝗽𝗲𝗿 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗶𝗮𝗻𝗶𝗱𝗶,

𝑫𝒆𝒑𝒊𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔 𝒐𝒇 𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚𝒔 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒇𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒅 𝒐𝒏 𝒔𝒆𝒂𝒍𝒔 𝒇𝒓𝒐𝒎 𝑩𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒂, 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒚 𝒂𝒑𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒍𝒚 𝒉𝒂𝒅 𝒂 𝒔𝒂𝒄𝒓𝒆𝒅 𝒔𝒊𝒈𝒏𝒊𝒇𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆…𝒊𝒕 𝒊𝒔 𝒄𝒍𝒆𝒂𝒓 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒊𝒏 𝒃𝒐𝒕𝒉 𝑨𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒍𝒊𝒂 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑩𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒂 𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚𝒔 𝒑𝒍𝒂𝒚𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒓𝒐𝒍𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒎𝒂𝒈𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒅𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒔 𝒊𝒏 𝒓𝒆𝒍𝒊𝒈𝒊𝒐𝒖𝒔 𝒄𝒆𝒓𝒆𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒊𝒆𝒔 𝒊𝒏𝒗𝒐𝒍𝒗𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒍𝒊𝒃𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔. 𝑴𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚𝒔 𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒉 𝒗𝒆𝒔𝒔𝒆𝒍𝒔 𝒊𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒊𝒓 𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒅𝒔 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒇𝒂𝒎𝒊𝒍𝒊𝒂𝒓 𝒊𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒂𝒓𝒕𝒔 𝒐𝒇 𝑨𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒍𝒊𝒂, 𝑺𝒚𝒓𝒊𝒂, 𝑴𝒆𝒔𝒐𝒑𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒎𝒊𝒂 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑬𝒈𝒚𝒑𝒕 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒅𝒆𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒄𝒖𝒍𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒂𝒍 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒉𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒐𝒓𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒊𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒖 𝒊𝒏 𝒘𝒉𝒊𝒄𝒉 𝒕𝒉𝒊𝒔 𝒊𝒎𝒂𝒈𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚𝒔 𝒂𝒔 𝒓𝒆𝒍𝒊𝒈𝒊𝒐𝒖𝒔 𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒅𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒔 𝒐𝒓𝒊𝒈𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒆 𝒊𝒕 𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝒔𝒑𝒓𝒆𝒂𝒅 𝒂𝒔 𝒇𝒂𝒓 𝒆𝒂𝒔𝒕 𝒂𝒔 𝑩𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒂 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒉𝒂𝒑𝒔 𝑴𝒂𝒓𝒈𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒂.

𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗶𝗮𝗻𝗶𝗱𝗶 𝗮𝗱𝗺𝗶𝘁𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗻𝗼𝗻𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝘀𝗲 𝗽𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗹𝗹𝗲𝗹𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁 𝗰𝗼𝘂𝗹𝗱 𝗯𝗲 𝗱𝗮𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗼 𝗲𝗮𝗿𝗹𝗶𝗲𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗯𝗲𝗴𝗶𝗻𝗻𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝟮𝗻𝗱 𝗺𝗶𝗹𝗹𝗲𝗻𝗻𝗶𝘂𝗺 𝗕𝗖. 𝗛𝗲 𝗯𝗲𝗹𝗶𝗲𝘃𝗲𝗱 𝗶𝗻 𝗮 𝗹𝗼𝘄𝗲𝗿 𝗰𝗵𝗿𝗼𝗻𝗼𝗹𝗼𝗴𝘆 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝗰𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗲 𝗳𝗼𝘂𝗻𝗱 𝗻𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗼𝘂𝘁 𝗼𝗳 𝗽𝗹𝗮𝗰𝗲 𝗶𝗻 𝘀𝘂𝗰𝗵 𝗱𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗻𝗴. 𝗡𝗲𝘃𝗲𝗿𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗹𝗲𝘀𝘀, 𝘄𝗲 𝗻𝗼𝘄 𝗸𝗻𝗼𝘄 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝗰𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗯𝗲𝗴𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝘀 𝗲𝗮𝗿𝗹𝘆 𝗮𝘀 𝟮𝟰𝟬𝟬 𝗕𝗖𝗘 𝗶.𝗲. 𝗵𝘂𝗻𝗱𝗿𝗲𝗱𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝘆𝗲𝗮𝗿𝘀 𝗯𝗲𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀 𝗯𝗲𝗴𝗶𝗻 𝘀𝗵𝗼𝘄𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘂𝗽 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗯𝘆 𝟭𝟵𝟬𝟬 𝗕𝗖𝗘, 𝗶𝘁 𝘄𝗮𝘀 𝗮𝗹𝗿𝗲𝗮𝗱𝘆 𝗱𝘆𝗶𝗻𝗴. 𝗦𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗾𝘂𝗲𝘀𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗼𝗳 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀 𝗶𝗻𝗳𝗹𝘂𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗖𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗿𝗮𝗹 𝗔𝘀𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗕𝗿𝗼𝗻𝘇𝗲 𝗔𝗴𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗽𝗿𝗲𝗰𝗲𝗱𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗺 𝗯𝘆 𝘀𝗲𝘃𝗲𝗿𝗮𝗹 𝗰𝗲𝗻𝘁𝘂𝗿𝗶𝗲𝘀, 𝗹𝗼𝗼𝗸𝘀 𝗵𝗶𝗴𝗵𝗹𝘆 𝘂𝗻𝗹𝗶𝗸𝗲𝗹𝘆.

𝗬𝗲𝘁 𝗶𝗳 𝘄𝗲 𝘄𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝘁𝗼 𝗵𝗼𝗹𝗱 𝗼𝗻𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗽𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗹𝗹𝗲𝗹𝘀 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗶𝗮𝗻𝗶𝗱𝗶 𝗱𝗿𝗮𝘄𝘀 𝗯𝗲𝘁𝘄𝗲𝗲𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗰𝘂𝗹𝘁𝘂𝗿𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝟮𝗻𝗱 𝗺𝗶𝗹𝗹𝗲𝗻𝗶𝘂𝗺 𝗕𝗖 𝗜𝗘 𝗴𝗿𝗼𝘂𝗽𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝗦𝘆𝗿𝗶𝗮, 𝗔𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗼𝗹𝗶𝗮 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗔𝗲𝗴𝗲𝗮𝗻, 𝘄𝗲 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝘁𝗼 𝘄𝗼𝗻𝗱𝗲𝗿 – 𝗰𝗼𝘂𝗹𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝗻𝗼𝘁 𝗯𝗲 𝗶𝗻𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗮𝗱 𝗮𝗻 𝗲𝘃𝗶𝗱𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝗶𝗻𝗳𝗹𝘂𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝗼𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗜𝗘 𝗴𝗿𝗼𝘂𝗽𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁 ? 𝗔𝗻𝗱 𝗶𝗳 𝘀𝗼, 𝘄𝗼𝘂𝗹𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁 𝗯𝗿𝗼𝘂𝗴𝗵𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝗶𝗻𝗳𝗹𝘂𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝗶𝗻𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗿𝗲𝗴𝗶𝗼𝗻 ? 𝗪𝗮𝘀 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝗶𝘁𝘀𝗲𝗹𝗳 𝗮𝗻 𝗲𝗮𝗿𝗹𝘆 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗰𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 ?

𝗜𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝗰𝗼𝗻𝘁𝗲𝘅𝘁, 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗶𝗰𝗼𝗻𝗼𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗵𝘆 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝗮𝘀𝘀𝘂𝗺𝗲𝘀 𝘀𝗶𝗴𝗻𝗶𝗳𝗶𝗰𝗮𝗻𝗰𝗲. 𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗦𝘆𝗿𝗼-𝗔𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗼𝗹𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗶𝗰𝗼𝗻𝗼𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗵𝘆 𝗶𝘀 𝘂𝗻𝗹𝗶𝗸𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝘁𝗼 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗶𝗻𝗳𝗹𝘂𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗽𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗹𝗹𝗲𝗹 𝗶𝗰𝗼𝗻𝗼𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗵𝘆 𝗶𝗻 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝘀𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝗱𝗮𝘁𝗲𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗮𝗻 𝗲𝗮𝗿𝗹𝗶𝗲𝗿 𝗽𝗲𝗿𝗶𝗼𝗱 𝗯𝘂𝘁 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝗯𝗲𝗰𝗮𝘂𝘀𝗲, 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝘄𝗮𝘀 𝗰𝘂𝗹𝘁𝘂𝗿𝗮𝗹𝗹𝘆 𝗰𝗹𝗼𝘀𝗲 𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗮𝘀𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶 𝗦𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗵𝘂 𝗖𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝘄𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝘄𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗳𝗼𝘂𝗻𝗱 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗶𝗿 𝗻𝗮𝘁𝘂𝗿𝗮𝗹 𝗵𝗮𝗯𝗶𝘁𝗮𝘁 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗮𝘀 𝘄𝗲 𝘀𝗮𝘄 𝗲𝗮𝗿𝗹𝗶𝗲𝗿, 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝘄𝗮𝘀 𝗹𝗶𝗸𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝗶𝗺𝗽𝗼𝗿𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗮𝘀𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶 𝗦𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗵𝘂 𝗖𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝘁𝗼 𝗘𝗹𝗮𝗺 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗠𝗲𝘀𝗼𝗽𝗼𝘁𝗮𝗺𝗶𝗮, 𝘀𝗼 𝗮𝗻 𝗶𝗻𝗳𝗹𝘂𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝗼𝗻 𝗕𝗠𝗔𝗖 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻𝘀 𝗹𝗼𝗼𝗸𝘀 𝘃𝗲𝗿𝘆 𝗼𝗯𝘃𝗶𝗼𝘂𝘀 𝗿𝗮𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗻 𝘀𝗲𝗮𝗿𝗰𝗵𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗳𝗮𝗿 𝗳𝗹𝘂𝗻𝗴 𝗶𝗻𝗳𝗹𝘂𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗰𝘂𝗹𝘁𝘂𝗿𝗲𝘀 𝗱𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗼 𝗮 𝗹𝗮𝘁𝗲𝗿 𝗽𝗲𝗿𝗶𝗼𝗱.

𝗧𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗲, 𝗶𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝗺𝗼𝗿𝗲 𝗹𝗶𝗸𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗴𝗲𝗻𝗲𝗿𝗮𝗹 𝗳𝗹𝗼𝘄 𝗼𝗳 𝗶𝗻𝗳𝗹𝘂𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝘄𝗮𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗲𝗮𝘀𝘁 𝘁𝗼 𝘄𝗲𝘀𝘁 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗶𝗰𝗼𝗻𝗼𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗵𝘆 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝗶𝗻𝗳𝗹𝘂𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗴𝗿𝗼𝘂𝗽𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝟮𝗻𝗱 𝗺𝗶𝗹𝗹𝗲𝗻𝗻𝗶𝘂𝗺 𝗕𝗖𝗘 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁. 𝗔𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝗶𝗺𝗽𝗼𝗿𝘁𝗮𝗻𝘁 𝘁𝗼 𝗻𝗼𝘁𝗲 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝗿𝗲𝘀𝗽𝗲𝗰𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝘄𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗱𝗲𝗽𝗶𝗰𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝗶𝗻 𝗿𝗲𝗹𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗼𝘂𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘀𝗮𝗰𝗿𝗲𝗱 𝗶𝗺𝗮𝗴𝗲𝗿𝘆 𝗯𝗼𝘁𝗵 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁 𝘄𝗵𝗶𝗰𝗵 𝗱𝗲𝗺𝗼𝗻𝘀𝘁𝗿𝗮𝘁𝗲𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗶𝗺𝗽𝗼𝗿𝘁𝗮𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗵𝗲𝗹𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗺.

𝗠𝗼𝗿𝗲 𝗿𝗲𝗰𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗹𝘆, 𝗮𝗿𝗰𝗵𝗮𝗲𝗼𝗹𝗼𝗴𝗶𝘀𝘁𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗔𝗲𝗴𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗕𝗿𝗼𝗻𝘇𝗲 𝗔𝗴𝗲, 𝗺𝗮𝗻𝗮𝗴𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗼 𝗰𝗼𝗻𝗱𝘂𝗰𝘁 𝗮 𝗺𝘂𝗹𝘁𝗶-𝗱𝗶𝘀𝗰𝗶𝗽𝗹𝗶𝗻𝗮𝗿𝘆 𝘀𝘁𝘂𝗱𝘆 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗠𝗶𝗻𝗼𝗮𝗻 𝗳𝗿𝗲𝘀𝗰𝗼𝗲𝘀 𝘄𝗵𝗶𝗰𝗵 𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗹𝘂𝗱𝗲𝗱 𝗮 𝘁𝗲𝗮𝗺 𝗼𝗳 𝗽𝗿𝗶𝗺𝗮𝘁𝗼𝗹𝗼𝗴𝗶𝘀𝘁𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘄𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗽𝗹𝗲𝗮𝘀𝗮𝗻𝘁𝗹𝘆 𝘀𝘂𝗿𝗽𝗿𝗶𝘀𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗼 𝗳𝗶𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘂𝗽-𝘁𝗮𝗶𝗹𝗲𝗱 𝗯𝗹𝘂𝗲 𝗰𝗼𝗹𝗼𝗿𝗲𝗱 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗱𝗲𝗽𝗶𝗰𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝗼𝗻 𝘀𝗼𝗺𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝘀𝗲 𝗳𝗿𝗲𝘀𝗰𝗼𝗲𝘀 𝘄𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗛𝗮𝗻𝘂𝗺𝗮𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗿𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗼𝗿𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗻.

𝗔𝘀 𝗽𝗲𝗿 𝗣𝗮𝗿𝗲𝗷𝗮,

𝑻𝒉𝒆 𝒕𝒂𝒊𝒍 𝒑𝒐𝒔𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏, 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒑𝒐𝒓𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔, 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒆𝒚𝒆𝒔 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒎𝒐𝒔𝒕 𝒊𝒎𝒎𝒆𝒅𝒊𝒂𝒕𝒆 𝒊𝒏𝒅𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒓𝒔 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒚 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒖𝒓𝒔 𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒓 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒗𝒆𝒕𝒔. 𝑨𝒍𝒕𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒈𝒉 𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒗𝒆𝒕𝒔 𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒅 𝒕𝒐 𝒄𝒂𝒓𝒓𝒚 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒊𝒓 𝒕𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒔 𝒐𝒖𝒕𝒘𝒂𝒓𝒅, 𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒉 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒆𝒏𝒅 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒕𝒂𝒊𝒍 𝒔𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒅𝒐𝒘𝒏 𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒆𝒏𝒅 (𝑭𝒊𝒈. 9), 𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒖𝒓𝒔 𝒎𝒐𝒓𝒆 𝒄𝒐𝒎𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒍𝒚 𝒂𝒓𝒄 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒊𝒓 𝒕𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒔 𝒊𝒏 𝒂 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒓𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒊𝒄 𝑪- 𝒐𝒓 𝑺-𝒔𝒉𝒂𝒑𝒆 (𝑭𝒊𝒈. 10). 𝑻𝒉𝒆 𝒈𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒍 𝒑𝒉𝒚𝒔𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒑𝒐𝒓𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒂𝒏𝒊𝒎𝒂𝒍𝒔’ 𝒇𝒂𝒄𝒆𝒔 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒍𝒊𝒎𝒃𝒔 𝒎𝒐𝒓𝒆 𝒄𝒍𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒍𝒚 𝒓𝒆𝒔𝒆𝒎𝒃𝒍𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒐𝒔𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒖𝒓𝒔 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒗𝒆𝒕𝒔, 𝒂𝒔 𝒘𝒆𝒍𝒍. 𝑳𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒖𝒓𝒔 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒂𝒍𝒔𝒐 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒅𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒃𝒍𝒚 𝒍𝒂𝒓𝒈𝒆𝒓 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒄𝒂𝒕-𝒔𝒊𝒛𝒆𝒅 𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒗𝒆𝒕𝒔.

𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝗱𝗲𝗽𝗶𝗰𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗼𝗳 𝗲𝗮𝗰𝗵 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗼𝗻 𝗠𝗶𝗻𝗼𝗮𝗻 𝗳𝗿𝗲𝘀𝗰𝗼𝗲𝘀 𝗮𝘁 𝗔𝗸𝗿𝗼𝘁𝗶𝗿𝗶 𝗧𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗮 𝗶𝘀 𝗶𝗻𝗳𝗮𝗰𝘁 𝘀𝗼 𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗱𝘂𝗮𝗹𝗹𝘆 𝘂𝗻𝗶𝗾𝘂𝗲 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗽𝗲𝗰𝘂𝗹𝗶𝗮𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗣𝗮𝗿𝗲𝗷𝗮 𝗲𝘁 𝗮𝗹 𝗮𝗿𝗴𝘂𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗠𝗶𝗻𝗼𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝗿𝘁𝗶𝘀𝘁 𝗺𝘂𝘀𝘁 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝘀𝗲𝗲𝗻 𝗿𝗲𝗮𝗹 𝗛𝗮𝗻𝘂𝗺𝗮𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗿𝘀. 𝗔𝘀 𝗽𝗲𝗿 𝗣𝗮𝗿𝗲𝗷𝗮,

…𝒊𝒕 𝒔𝒉𝒐𝒘𝒔 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒍𝒊𝒗𝒆 𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚𝒔 𝒘𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝒐𝒃𝒔𝒆𝒓𝒗𝒆𝒅 𝒅𝒊𝒓𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒍𝒚 𝒂𝒕 𝒔𝒐𝒎𝒆 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕, 𝒔𝒐 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒔𝒆 𝒑𝒉𝒚𝒔𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒏𝒖𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆𝒔 𝒄𝒐𝒖𝒍𝒅 𝒃𝒆 𝒂𝒄𝒄𝒖𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒍𝒚 𝒓𝒆𝒄𝒐𝒓𝒅𝒆𝒅 𝒊𝒏 𝒐𝒓𝒅𝒆𝒓 𝒕𝒐 𝒄𝒓𝒆𝒂𝒕𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒘𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒑𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈. 𝑵𝒐𝒕𝒊𝒄𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒔𝒖𝒃𝒕𝒍𝒆 𝒅𝒆𝒕𝒂𝒊𝒍 𝒐𝒇 𝒆𝒂𝒄𝒉 𝒇𝒂𝒄𝒆: 𝒆𝒗𝒆𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒅𝒂𝒓𝒌 𝒇𝒂𝒄𝒊𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒂𝒓𝒌𝒊𝒏𝒈𝒔 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒅𝒊𝒇𝒇𝒆𝒓𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒆𝒂𝒄𝒉 𝒑𝒓𝒆𝒔𝒆𝒓𝒗𝒆𝒅 𝒇𝒂𝒄𝒆! 𝑻𝒉𝒆𝒔𝒆 𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚𝒔 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒓𝒆𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒓𝒆𝒅 𝒂𝒔 𝒊𝒏𝒅𝒊𝒗𝒊𝒅𝒖𝒂𝒍𝒔, 𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒓 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒂𝒔 𝒂 𝒄𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒓𝒆𝒑𝒆𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒊𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒊𝒔 𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒏𝒕 𝒕𝒐 𝒓𝒆𝒑𝒓𝒆𝒔𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒊𝒅𝒆𝒂 𝒐𝒇 “𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚” (𝒂𝒔 𝒊𝒔 𝒇𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒅 𝒊𝒏 𝑬𝒈𝒚𝒑𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒏 𝒂𝒓𝒕𝒘𝒐𝒓𝒌). 𝑰𝒕 𝒂𝒍𝒔𝒐 𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒏𝒔 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒔𝒆 𝒅𝒊𝒇𝒇𝒆𝒓𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒆𝒔 𝒘𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝒊𝒎𝒑𝒐𝒓𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕 𝒆𝒏𝒐𝒖𝒈𝒉 𝒕𝒐 𝒘𝒂𝒓𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒕 𝒔𝒖𝒄𝒉 𝒑𝒓𝒆𝒄𝒊𝒔𝒆 𝒓𝒆𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒇𝒓𝒐𝒎 𝒍𝒊𝒇𝒆.

𝗙𝘂𝗿𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗺𝗼𝗿𝗲, 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗳𝗼𝘂𝗻𝗱 𝗽𝗹𝗮𝘆𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗮𝗻 𝗶𝗺𝗽𝗼𝗿𝘁𝗮𝗻𝘁 𝗿𝗼𝗹𝗲 𝗶𝗻 𝗮𝗻 𝗶𝗰𝗼𝗻𝗶𝗰 𝗠𝗶𝗻𝗼𝗮𝗻 𝗳𝗿𝗲𝘀𝗰𝗼𝗲𝘀 𝗳𝘂𝗻𝗱𝗮𝗺𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗮𝗹 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘂𝗻𝗱𝗲𝗿𝘀𝘁𝗮𝗻𝗱𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗼𝗳 𝗠𝗶𝗻𝗼𝗮𝗻 𝗿𝗲𝗹𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗼𝘂𝘀 𝗯𝗲𝗹𝗶𝗲𝗳𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗽𝗿𝗮𝗰𝘁𝗶𝗰𝗲𝘀, 𝗺𝗮𝘆 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗯𝗲𝗲𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗛𝗮𝗻𝘂𝗺𝗮𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗿𝘀. 𝗜𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗳𝗿𝗲𝘀𝗰𝗼, 𝗮 𝗳𝗲𝗺𝗮𝗹𝗲 𝗮𝘁𝘁𝗲𝗻𝗱𝗮𝗻𝘁 𝗶𝗻 𝘀𝗵𝗼𝘄𝗻 𝗴𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗮 𝗳𝗹𝗼𝘄𝗲𝗿 𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗛𝗮𝗻𝘂𝗺𝗮𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗿 𝘄𝗵𝗼 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝘂𝗿𝗻 𝗶𝗻 𝘀𝗵𝗼𝘄𝗻 𝗴𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗶𝘁 𝘁𝗼 𝗮 𝘀𝗲𝗮𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝗴𝗼𝗱𝗱𝗲𝘀𝘀.

𝗣𝗮𝗿𝗲𝗷𝗮 𝗲𝘁 𝗮𝗹 𝘀𝗵𝗼𝘄 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗮𝗿𝗲 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝗱𝗲𝗽𝗶𝗰𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝗶𝗻 𝘀𝗼𝗺𝗲 𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝗼𝗯𝗷𝗲𝗰𝘁𝘀 𝗳𝗼𝘂𝗻𝗱 𝗮𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗴 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗠𝗶𝗻𝗼𝗮𝗻𝘀 𝘀𝘂𝗰𝗵 𝗮𝘀 𝗮 𝘀𝗲𝗮𝗹 𝗺𝗮𝗱𝗲 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗰𝗮𝗿𝗻𝗲𝗹𝗶𝗮𝗻, 𝗮 𝘀𝘁𝗼𝗻𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗼𝗿𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝗮𝗻 𝗶𝘃𝗼𝗿𝘆 𝘀𝘁𝗮𝗺𝗽 𝘀𝗲𝗮𝗹 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵 𝗮 𝘁𝘆𝗽𝗶𝗰𝗮𝗹 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗰𝗿𝗼𝘀𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗰𝗵𝗲𝘃𝗿𝗼𝗻 𝗺𝗼𝘁𝗶𝗳. 𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝗰𝗿𝗼𝘀𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗰𝗵𝗲𝘃𝗿𝗼𝗻 𝗺𝗼𝘁𝗶𝗳 𝗶𝗺𝗽𝗼𝗿𝘁𝗮𝗻𝘁𝗹𝘆 𝗳𝗶𝗿𝘀𝘁 𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗿𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗮𝘀𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶 𝗦𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗵𝘂 𝗱𝗼𝗺𝗮𝗶𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗻 𝗽𝗿𝗼𝗴𝗿𝗲𝘀𝘀𝗶𝘃𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀, 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗻 𝗠𝗲𝘀𝗼𝗽𝗼𝘁𝗮𝗺𝗶𝗮, 𝗘𝗴𝘆𝗽𝘁, 𝗟𝗲𝘃𝗮𝗻𝘁, 𝗔𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗼𝗹𝗶𝗮 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗹𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗹𝘆 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗔𝗲𝗴𝗲𝗮𝗻.  𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝘀𝗶𝘁𝘁𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗶𝗻 𝗮𝗻 𝘂𝗽𝗿𝗶𝗴𝗵𝘁 𝗽𝗼𝘀𝘁𝘂𝗿𝗲 𝗺𝗮𝘆 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝗯𝗲 𝗶𝗻𝘀𝗽𝗶𝗿𝗲𝗱 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘀𝗶𝗺𝗶𝗹𝗮𝗿 𝘀𝘁𝗮𝗺𝗽 𝘀𝗲𝗮𝗹𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗕𝗠𝗔𝗖 𝘄𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀, 𝗵𝘂𝗺𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗵𝘆𝗯𝗿𝗶𝗱 𝗮𝗻𝗶𝗺𝗮𝗹𝘀 𝗮𝗿𝗲 𝘀𝗵𝗼𝘄𝗻 𝘀𝗶𝘁𝘁𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗶𝗻 𝘀𝘂𝗰𝗵 𝗽𝗼𝘀𝗶𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻𝘀.

𝗪𝗲 𝗰𝗮𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝘂𝘀 𝘀𝗲𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗮𝘀𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶 𝗦𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗵𝘂 𝗖𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝘄𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝗼𝗻 𝘁𝗼 𝗯𝗲𝗰𝗼𝗺𝗲 𝗶𝗺𝗽𝗼𝗿𝘁𝗮𝗻𝘁 𝗽𝗹𝗮𝘆𝗲𝗿𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝘀𝗮𝗰𝗿𝗲𝗱 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗿𝗲𝗹𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗼𝘂𝘀 𝗶𝗰𝗼𝗻𝗼𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗵𝘆 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝗰𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗹𝗶𝗸𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝗶𝗻 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗜𝗿𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘀𝘂𝗯𝘀𝗲𝗾𝘂𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗹𝘆 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝘆𝗿𝗶𝗮𝗻, 𝗔𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗼𝗹𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗔𝗲𝗴𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗹𝗱 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝟮𝗻𝗱 𝗺𝗶𝗹𝗹𝗲𝗻𝗻𝗶𝘂𝗺 𝗕𝗖𝗘, 𝗶𝗻 𝗮 𝗽𝗲𝗿𝗶𝗼𝗱 𝘄𝗵𝗲𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗿𝗲𝗴𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝘄𝗮𝘀 𝗱𝗼𝗺𝗶𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝗯𝘆 𝘀𝗲𝘃𝗲𝗿𝗮𝗹 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗴𝗿𝗼𝘂𝗽𝘀. 𝗜𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝗮 𝗽𝗲𝗿𝗶𝗼𝗱 𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗶𝗱𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗮𝗹𝗹𝘆, 𝘄𝗵𝗲𝗻 𝗼𝗯𝗷𝗲𝗰𝘁𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗮𝗻𝗶𝗺𝗮𝗹𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗼𝗿𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗻, 𝘀𝘂𝗰𝗵 𝗮𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗵𝘂𝗺𝗽𝗲𝗱 𝗭𝗲𝗯𝘂 𝗰𝗮𝘁𝘁𝗹𝗲, 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗕𝘂𝗳𝗳𝗮𝗹𝗼, 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗘𝗹𝗲𝗽𝗵𝗮𝗻𝘁, 𝘀𝗽𝗶𝗰𝗲𝘀 𝗲𝘁𝗰. 𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗿𝗲𝗮𝘀𝗶𝗻𝗴𝗹𝘆 𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗿𝗲𝗴𝗶𝗼𝗻.

𝐂𝐨𝐧𝐜𝐥𝐮𝐬𝐢𝐨𝐧


𝗪𝗲 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝘀𝗲𝗲𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀 𝗸𝗻𝗲𝘄 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗶𝗿 𝗵𝗼𝗺𝗲𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗵𝗮𝗱 𝗮 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗶𝘁 𝗱𝗶𝗿𝗲𝗰𝘁𝗹𝘆 𝗱𝗲𝗿𝗶𝘃𝗲𝗱 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗮 𝗽𝗿𝗼𝘁𝗼-𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗿𝗼𝗼𝘁 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗻𝗼𝘁 𝗯𝗼𝗿𝗿𝗼𝘄𝗲𝗱 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗮𝗻𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲 𝗴𝗿𝗼𝘂𝗽. 𝗧𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝘄𝗼𝘂𝗹𝗱 𝗺𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗣𝗿𝗼𝘁𝗼-𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗵𝗼𝗺𝗲𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗵𝗮𝗱 𝗱𝗶𝗿𝗲𝗰𝘁 𝗰𝗼𝗻𝘁𝗮𝗰𝘁𝘀 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗻𝗼𝘁 𝘀𝗲𝗰𝗼𝗻𝗱𝗮𝗿𝘆 𝘃𝗶𝗮 𝗮 𝗻𝗼𝗻-𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗴𝗿𝗼𝘂𝗽. 𝗧𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝘄𝗼𝘂𝗹𝗱 𝗶𝗺𝗽𝗹𝘆 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗽𝗿𝗲𝘀𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝗣𝗿𝗼𝘁𝗼-𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗵𝗼𝗺𝗲𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗱. 𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝗼𝗻𝗹𝘆 𝗕𝗿𝗼𝗻𝘇𝗲 𝗔𝗴𝗲 𝗰𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝘄𝗵𝗼𝘀𝗲 𝗴𝗲𝗼𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗵𝘆 𝗼𝘃𝗲𝗿𝗹𝗮𝗽𝘀 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗻𝗮𝘁𝘂𝗿𝗮𝗹 𝗵𝗮𝗯𝗶𝘁𝗮𝘁 𝗼𝗳 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝘄𝗮𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗮𝘀𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶 𝗦𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗵𝘂 𝗼𝗿 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗖𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗶𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗲 𝘃𝗲𝗿𝘆 𝗹𝗶𝗸𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝘄𝗼𝘂𝗹𝗱 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝘁𝗿𝗮𝘃𝗲𝗹𝗹𝗲𝗱 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲 𝗶𝗻𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗪𝗲𝘀𝘁 𝗔𝘀𝗶𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀.

𝗪𝗲 𝗰𝗮𝗻 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝘀𝗲𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗮𝘀𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶 𝗦𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗵𝘂 𝗖𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗹𝗶𝗸𝗲𝗹𝘆 𝗶𝗻𝘀𝗽𝗶𝗿𝗲𝗱 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗽𝗹𝗮𝘆𝗲𝗱 𝗮𝗻 𝗶𝗺𝗽𝗼𝗿𝘁𝗮𝗻𝘁 𝗿𝗼𝗹𝗲 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗿𝗲𝗹𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗼𝘂𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗰𝘂𝗹𝘁𝗶𝗰 𝗯𝗲𝗹𝗶𝗲𝗳𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗢𝘅𝘂𝘀 𝗰𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗰𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻𝘀, 𝘀𝗲𝘃𝗲𝗿𝗮𝗹 𝗼𝗳 𝘄𝗵𝗶𝗰𝗵 𝘄𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀 𝘀𝘂𝗰𝗵 𝗮𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗠𝗶𝘁𝗮𝗻𝗻𝗶, 𝗛𝗶𝘁𝘁𝗶𝘁𝗲𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗠𝘆𝗰𝗲𝗻𝗮𝗲𝗮𝗻𝘀.

𝗧𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗲, 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝗶𝘀 𝘀𝘁𝗿𝗼𝗻𝗴 𝗲𝘃𝗶𝗱𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗶𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗮𝘀𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶 𝗦𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗵𝘂 𝗖𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗼𝗳 𝗶𝘁 𝗯𝗲𝗰𝗮𝗺𝗲 𝗸𝗻𝗼𝘄𝗻 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗕𝗿𝗼𝗻𝘇𝗲 𝗔𝗴𝗲 𝗡𝗲𝗮𝗿 𝗘𝗮𝘀𝘁. 𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝘀𝗮𝗰𝗿𝗲𝗱 𝗿𝗼𝗹𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗶𝘀 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝘁𝗵𝘆 𝗼𝗳 𝗻𝗼𝘁𝗲 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗺𝗮𝘆 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝗱𝗲𝗿𝗶𝘃𝗲𝗱 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻𝘀. 𝗜𝗻 𝗺𝗼𝗱𝗲𝗿𝗻 𝗛𝗶𝗻𝗱𝘂𝗶𝘀𝗺, 𝗮 𝗿𝗲𝗹𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗺𝗮𝗷𝗼𝗿𝗹𝘆 𝗱𝗲𝗿𝗶𝘃𝗲𝗱 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗕𝗿𝗼𝗻𝘇𝗲 𝗮𝗴𝗲 𝗰𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗼𝗳 𝗛𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗽𝗮𝗻𝘀, 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗰𝗼𝗻𝘁𝗶𝗻𝘂𝗲 𝘁𝗼 𝗵𝗼𝗹𝗱 𝗮 𝘀𝗮𝗰𝗿𝗲𝗱 𝘀𝗶𝗴𝗻𝗶𝗳𝗶𝗰𝗮𝗻𝗰𝗲.

𝗦𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗺𝗼𝗻𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝗶𝘀 𝗰𝗹𝗲𝗮𝗿𝗹𝘆 𝗼𝗳 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗼𝗿𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗻, 𝗵𝗼𝘄 𝗱𝗼𝗲𝘀 𝗼𝗻𝗲 𝗲𝘅𝗽𝗹𝗮𝗶𝗻 𝗶𝘁 𝗶𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗼-𝗘𝘂𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗲𝗮𝗻 𝗵𝗼𝗺𝗲𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘄𝗮𝘀 𝗳𝗮𝗿 𝗮𝘄𝗮𝘆 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗴𝗲𝗼𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗵𝘆 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗮𝘀𝘃𝗮𝘁𝗶 𝗦𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗵𝘂 𝗖𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗹𝗶𝘇𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 ?

Hindoo History: An Introduction

 

Greetings, Brown Pundits readers! For those of you have been following @HindooHistory on Twitter and Instagram, you may have seen that I now have a Substack where I’ll be posting longer pieces from time to time. I wanted to go ahead and post the introductory piece here for the benefit of the BP audience. Enjoy! 

Welcome, readers! Alas, despite my best efforts I could no longer resist joining the newsletter bandwagon. In the course of my day-to-day research for Hindoo History, I often come across characters and stories that warrant more than an instagram caption or a tweet thread. I’ll be using this newsletter to explore those topics in greater detail. To start, however I wanted to elucidate the idea behind Hindoo History. After all, to this day the most frequent question I get is some variation of “Why ‘Hindoo’ and not ‘Hindu'”? There is a superficial answer— simply that this is how “Hindu” was rendered by colonial-era missionaries and journalists, but there is also a deeper response that goes to the root of the project.

When I started collecting newspaper clips, I didn’t really have an overarching intellectual framework in mind— I would just collect and sort clips that I found interesting. I did however have a general sense that newspapers (as opposed to, say, works of scholarship) offer a more robust sense of what the “average American” thought at the time. Enter Professor Michael Altman. Dr. Altman is a professor of religion at the University of Alabama, and his book “Heathen, Hindoo, Hindu: American Representations of India, 1721-1893” was and is instrumental in providing the scaffolding for the collected data.

Dr. Altman’s key insight is that the American conversation about Hinduism long pre-dated the arrival of Hindus and Hinduism to American shores. So, rather than asking how Hinduism arrived in America, Dr. Altman asks how “Hinduism became conceivable in America.” This idea of “conceivability” is a key methodological pivot because it shifts the focus away from Hinduism per se, and towards the “genealogy” of a particular set of ideas, themes, and attitudes that shaped the American conception of Hinduism. Dr. Altman defines “genealogy” as follows:

“For my purposes, genealogy means an attention to the powers, identities, forces, constraints, agents, and discourses that form a particular category. It means paying attention to the connection between categories, the ways they overlap, include, and exclude one another. It traces how the formation of one category draws on others and produces yet more”

Whereas the traditional narrative marks Swami Vivekananda’s speech at the World Parliament as the beginning of the story of Hinduism in America, Dr. Altman notes that when Vivekananda entered the stage, “Hinduism as a world religion emerged in the midst of various representations of religion” and although these representations made Hinduism “conceivable” to the average American, “they were not its direct antecedents.” So what’s the take-away here? Many of the newspaper clips I post involve descriptions of Hindoos engaging in widow burning, infant sacrifice, and all sorts of other pagan bloodletting. It is not my intent to analyze the “accuracy” of these claims vis-a-vis the historical practice of Hindus in India, because that’s not what “Hindoo History” is concerned with. Whether these claims were true or not, they were for the most part the only data regarding the “Hindoo” the average American had access to.

This leads us to another key methodological contribution of Dr. Altman’s book, that I rely on in my own posts: The resulting conception was formed against the backdrop of an on-going debate in America regarding what “religion” was, and as a result the debates around Hinduism in America are drawn into broader sociological and theological disputes raging in America contemporaneously. Dr. Altman eloquently observes that “when Americans talked about religion in India, they were not really talking about religion in India. They were talking about themselves.” Focusing on newspaper clips and tracing themes chronologically helps illuminate not just how the American conception of the “Hindoo” changed over time, but also the shifting socio-cultural fabric of the country as a whole.

Monkey and the Indo-Europeans

𝐌𝐨𝐧𝐤𝐞𝐲𝐬 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐈𝐧𝐝𝐨-𝐄𝐮𝐫𝐨𝐩𝐞𝐚𝐧𝐬


𝐓𝐡𝐞 𝐥𝐢𝐧𝐠𝐮𝐢𝐬𝐭𝐢𝐜 𝐚𝐫𝐠𝐮𝐦𝐞𝐧𝐭

Gamkrelidze and Ivanov, two major linguists hailing from the former Soviet Union, came out with a major book in the 1980s in Russian, where they proposed the Armenian homeland theory for the origins of Indo-Europeans. They made several arguments to support their theory. Many of these arguments incidentally better support an Indian homeland for Proto-Indo-European. One such argument was their proposal that the Proto-Indo-Europeans were aware of the monkey before they dispersed i.e. they knew of the monkey in their homeland.

To put it in their own words –

𝑾𝒊𝒅𝒆𝒍𝒚 𝒅𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒃𝒖𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝒄𝒐𝒈𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆 𝒘𝒐𝒓𝒅𝒔 𝒇𝒐𝒓 ‘𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚, 𝒂𝒑𝒆’ 𝒊𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒊𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝑰𝒏𝒅𝒐-𝑬𝒖𝒓𝒐𝒑𝒆𝒂𝒏 𝒅𝒊𝒂𝒍𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒔 𝒎𝒂𝒌𝒆 𝒊𝒕 𝒑𝒐𝒔𝒔𝒊𝒃𝒍𝒆 𝒕𝒐 𝒑𝒐𝒔𝒊𝒕 𝒂 𝒘𝒆𝒍𝒍-𝒅𝒆𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒆𝒅 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒇𝒐𝒓𝒎 𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝑷𝒓𝒐𝒕𝒐-𝑰𝒏𝒅𝒐-𝑬𝒖𝒓𝒐𝒑𝒆𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒊𝒎𝒆 𝒅𝒆𝒑𝒕𝒉. 𝑻𝒉𝒆 𝒄𝒐𝒈𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒔 𝒇𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒐 𝒕𝒘𝒐 𝒇𝒐𝒓𝒎𝒂𝒍 𝒔𝒆𝒕𝒔, 𝒐𝒏𝒆 𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒉 𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍 𝒌- 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒐𝒏𝒆 𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒕 𝒊𝒕. 𝑺𝒌𝒕. 𝒌𝒂𝒑𝒊- ‘𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚’ … 𝑮𝒌. 𝒌𝒆𝒑𝒐𝒔 – 𝒌𝒆𝒃𝒐𝒔 ‘𝒍𝒐𝒏𝒈-𝒕𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒆𝒅 𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚’… 𝑶𝑰𝒄𝒆𝒍. 𝒂𝒑𝒊, 𝑶𝑬 𝒂𝒑𝒂 (𝑬𝒏𝒈𝒍. 𝒂𝒑𝒆), 𝑶𝑯𝑮 𝒂𝒇𝒇𝒐 (𝑮𝒆𝒓. 𝑨𝒇𝒇𝒆), 𝑪𝒆𝒍𝒕𝒊𝒄 𝒂𝒃𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒐𝒔… 𝑶𝑹𝒖𝒔𝒔. 𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒄𝒂 (𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒊𝒄𝒂), 𝒐𝒑𝒚𝒏𝒊 ‘𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚, 𝒂𝒑𝒆’… 𝑶𝑷𝒐𝒍. 𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒄𝒂 (𝒍5𝒕𝒉 𝒄𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒚), 𝑪𝒛. 𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒄𝒆, 𝑼𝑺𝒐𝒓𝒃. 𝒘𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒄𝒂, 𝑷𝒐𝒍𝒂𝒃. 𝒐𝒑𝒐, 𝑺𝒆𝒓𝒃𝒐-𝑪𝒓. 𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒄𝒂. 𝑺𝒍𝒐𝒗𝒆𝒏𝒆 𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒄𝒂.

So we have the cognate word for monkey in Sanskrit, Greek, Germanic, Celtic and Slavic languages of Indo-European.

Gamkrelidze & Ivanov, though arguing that the word for monkey was already known to the Indo-Europeans in their homeland, insist that this word has come into Indo-European languages through their contact with Southwest Asian or Near Eastern languages. They cite Akkadian ukupu, Hebrew kop, Aramaic kopa and Egyptian gjf – monkey, ape as the early examples.

Yet the problem with this theory, as we shall come to it again, is that monkeys are not native to any place in the Near East. The standard theory so far has been that it is through contact with the Egyptians that the Near Eastern civilizations of Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Levant and the Aegean came to know of the monkeys. Therefore, it is from the Egyptian word that the word for monkey in Indo-European and other Near Eastern languages should derive. Yet as can be seen, the Egyptian word is ouite different and looks unlikely to have been the source word for the other languages. Moreover, it now appears that even in Egypt, the monkey may have gone long extinct and was likely imported via the Horn of Africa, southeast of Egypt.

This leaves us with only the Harappan or Sarasvati Sindhu Civilization which is the only Bronze Age civilization whose geography indeed overlapped with the natural habitat of monkeys. So provisionally, it maybe argued that the word for monkey could have come into the Indo-European and the Near Eastern languages from the Harappan language or languages, whatever they may have been.

Digging into the linguistic aspect of this, we find that as per the Practical Sanskrit English Dictionary, the word kapi, usually referring to ‘monkey’ can also mean an ‘elephant’, the ‘sun’, ‘impure benzoin’, ‘incense’, a ‘species of the karanja tree’ etc. kapiloham means ‘brass’, kapishak means ‘cabbage’, kapila/kapisa means ‘tawny, brownish or reddish’ colour, kapana is a ‘worm’ or ‘caterpilar’, kapota is a ‘pigeon’ and so on. As per the Sanskrit Etymological Dictionary, the word kapi is said to derive from the root word *kamp which means ‘to tremble’ or ‘shake’. A derivative word kampra means ‘trembling’ or ‘shaken’ but also ‘movable’, ‘agile’ & ‘ouick’. A likely derivative of *kamp is kap which means ‘to move’. Therefore kapi, in the context of a monkey, may plausibly mean ‘one who moves ouickly’, an apt description.

Looking for the Proto-Indo-European root, we come across a root *kap or *kehp, meaning to ‘seize or grasp or hold’. Possible derivatives of this root include Greek kapane – ‘wagon’, kope – ‘grip,handle’, kapos – ‘garden,orchard’, latin captus – ‘captured, seized, taken’.

It is also said to be the root for the English words ‘hawk’ and ‘captive’ among many others. While the Proto-Indo-European root and its meaning fail to adeouately explain all the myriad different ways in which the derived words are used in various IE languages, for our purpose it is ouite adeouate. kapi may thus be derived from PIE root *kap – ‘to seize, hold’ to mean as one who grasps or can grasp. Monkeys, ouite uniouely among animals, have the ability to grasp things or objects with their forelimbs and this would not have gone unnoticed to the ancient people. This may also explain the name of kapi for elephant since it can also grasp with its trunk, as also the hawk in English since the hawk has a habit to grasp its prey in its sharp talons.

It may therefore be argued that the Proto-Indo-European word for monkey, as argued by Gamkrelidze and Ivanov, is not a loan word but derives from a sound PIE root. We already noted earlier that the word for monkey in the Near East may have been a loanword from the Sarasvati Sindhu Civilization and now we can see that this word is of likely Indo-European origin.

Does this mean, that Indo-European languages were spoken in the Sarasvati Sindhu Civilization ?

𝐓𝐡𝐞 𝐚𝐫𝐜𝐡𝐚𝐞𝐨𝐥𝐨𝐠𝐢𝐜𝐚𝐥 𝐞𝐯𝐢𝐝𝐞𝐧𝐜𝐞

Turning to the archaeological evidence, monkeys were depicted on frescoes and seals and objects, accessories were often fashioned in the shape of monkeys. The inspiration for this in Near Eastern art is usually considered to have come from ancient Egypt.

But, it has now become increasingly clear, as this recent study shows, that monkeys or baboons were not native to Egypt either and the ancient Egyptians themselves imported their monkeys from much further south and east, mostly from the fabled land of punt, which is the eastern African coast, and from where incidentally, objects of Harappan origin also reached Egypt.

Viktor Sarianidi, was an archaeologist credited with the discovery of the Bronze Age civilization of BMAC, also known today as the Oxus civilization. He was an ardent supporter of Gamkrelidze and Ivanov’s theory and argued for an archaeological evidence of Syro-Anatolian influence on the Oxus civilization. He believed the Oxus civilization to be Indo-Iranian speaking and therefore interpreted the perceived Syro-Anatolian influence on Oxus in terms of Indo-Iranian migrations from that region, which during that period had various Indo-European groups such as the Mitanni, Hittites and Mycenaeans dominating the landscape.

He also interpreted the depiction of monkeys on Oxus seals as yet another evidence of Near Eastern Indo-Europeans.As per Sarianidi,

𝑫𝒆𝒑𝒊𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔 𝒐𝒇 𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚𝒔 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒇𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒅 𝒐𝒏 𝒔𝒆𝒂𝒍𝒔 𝒇𝒓𝒐𝒎 𝑩𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒂, 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒚 𝒂𝒑𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒍𝒚 𝒉𝒂𝒅 𝒂 𝒔𝒂𝒄𝒓𝒆𝒅 𝒔𝒊𝒈𝒏𝒊𝒇𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆…𝒊𝒕 𝒊𝒔 𝒄𝒍𝒆𝒂𝒓 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒊𝒏 𝒃𝒐𝒕𝒉 𝑨𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒍𝒊𝒂 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑩𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒂 𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚𝒔 𝒑𝒍𝒂𝒚𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒓𝒐𝒍𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒎𝒂𝒈𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒅𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒔 𝒊𝒏 𝒓𝒆𝒍𝒊𝒈𝒊𝒐𝒖𝒔 𝒄𝒆𝒓𝒆𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒊𝒆𝒔 𝒊𝒏𝒗𝒐𝒍𝒗𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒍𝒊𝒃𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔. 𝑴𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚𝒔 𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒉 𝒗𝒆𝒔𝒔𝒆𝒍𝒔 𝒊𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒊𝒓 𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒅𝒔 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒇𝒂𝒎𝒊𝒍𝒊𝒂𝒓 𝒊𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒂𝒓𝒕𝒔 𝒐𝒇 𝑨𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒍𝒊𝒂, 𝑺𝒚𝒓𝒊𝒂, 𝑴𝒆𝒔𝒐𝒑𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒎𝒊𝒂 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑬𝒈𝒚𝒑𝒕 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒅𝒆𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒄𝒖𝒍𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒂𝒍 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒉𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒐𝒓𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒊𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒖 𝒊𝒏 𝒘𝒉𝒊𝒄𝒉 𝒕𝒉𝒊𝒔 𝒊𝒎𝒂𝒈𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒌𝒆𝒚𝒔 𝒂𝒔 𝒓𝒆𝒍𝒊𝒈𝒊𝒐𝒖𝒔 𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒅𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒔 𝒐𝒓𝒊𝒈𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒆 𝒊𝒕 𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝒔𝒑𝒓𝒆𝒂𝒅 𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝒔𝒑𝒓𝒆𝒂𝒅 𝒂𝒔 𝒇𝒂𝒓 𝒆𝒂𝒔𝒕 𝒂𝒔 𝑩𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒂 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒉𝒂𝒑𝒔 𝑴𝒂𝒓𝒈𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒂.

Sarianidi admits that none of these parallels in the Near East could be dated to earlier than the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. Sarianidi believed in a lower chronology of the Oxus civilization and therefore found nothing out of place in this. Nevertheless, we now know that the Oxus civilization began as early as 2400 BCE i.e. hundreds of years before the Indo-Europeans begin showing up in the Near East.

Yet if we were to hold onto the parallels Sarianidi draws between the culture of the Oxus and the 2nd millenium BC IE groups in Syria, Anatolia and the Aegean, we have to wonder – is this evidence of Oxus influence on the IE groups of the Near East ? And if so, was Oxus an Indo-European civilization ?

In this context, the monkey iconography also assumes significance. The Near Eastern monkey iconography is unlikely to have influenced the parallel iconography in Oxus since the Oxus dates from an earlier period but also because, the Oxus was culturally close to the Sarasvati Sindhu Civilization where monkeys were found in their natural habitat.

Rather, it is more likely that the monkey iconography of the Oxus influenced the Indo-European groups of the 2nd millennium BCE Near East. Also important to note in this respect is that the monkeys were depicted in religious and sacred imagery both in the Oxus and in the Indo-European Near East which demonstrates the importance that monkeys held for them.

More recently, archaeologists of the Aegean Bronze Age, managed to conduct a multi-disciplinary study of the Minoan frescoes and were pleasantly surprised to find that the uptailed blue colored monkeys were Hanuman langurs of Indian origin. Not only that, these Indian monkeys were found playing an important role in an iconic Minoan frescoes fundamental in the understanding of Minoan religious beliefs and practices. In that fresco, a female attendant in shown giving a flower to the Hanuman langur who in turn in shown giving to a seated goddess.

Pareja et al also show that Indian monkeys are also depicted in some other objects found among the Minoans such as a seal made from carnelian, a stone of Harappan origin and also an ivory stamp seal with a typical Harappan cross and chevron motif. The depiction of monkeys on Minoan frescoes is so realistic that Pareja et al argue that the Minoan artist must have seen a real Hanuman langur.

Here we may note that monkeys have been found buried at the site of Shahr-i-Sokhta in Iran, far away from its Indian homeland. Shahr-i-Sokhta is the site from which the majority of Harappan ‘migrant’ samples were published by Narasimhan et al. Thus, Harappan monkeys could well be travelling long distances with their human masters.

We can see that monkeys from Sarasvati Sindhu Civilization went on to become important players in sacred and religious iconography of the Oxus civilization and likely in Eastern Iran and subseouently in the Syrian, Anatolian and Aegean world of the 2nd millennium BCE, in a period when that region was dominated by several Indo-European groups.

𝐂𝐨𝐧𝐜𝐥𝐮𝐬𝐢𝐨𝐧

We have seen that the Indo-Europeans knew of the monkey in their homeland and had a word for it directly derived from a proto-Indo-European root and not borrowed from another language group. This would mean that the Proto-Indo-European homeland had direct contacts with the monkeys and not secondary via a non-Indo-European group. This would imply the presence of monkeys in Proto-Indo-European homeland. The only Bronze Age civilization whose geography overlaps with the natural habitat of monkeys was the Sarasvati Sindhu Civilization.

Similarly, we can also see that it is the monkeys from the Sarasvati Sindhu Civilization that likely inspired and played an important role in the religious and cultic beliefs of the Oxus civilization and the Near Eastern civilizations, several of which were Indo-Europeans such as the Mitanni, Hittites and the Mycenaeans.

Therefore, there is strong evidence that it is from the Sarasvati Sindhu Civilization that the monkeys and the word of it became known in the Bronze Age Near East. The sacred role of monkeys is also worthy of note and may have also derived from the Harappans since in Hinduism, a religion majorly derived from the Bronze age civilization of Harappans, monkeys continue to hold a sacred significance.

Since this word for monkey is clearly of Indo-European origin, how does one explain it if the Sarasvati Sindhu Civilization was not an Indo-European civilization ?